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Rhetoric. Plato: Rhetoric is "the art of winning the soul by discourse.". Rhetoric. Aristotle: Rhetoric is "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available means of persuasion. Rhetoric.

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Rhetoric

Rhetoric

Plato: Rhetoric is "the art of winning the soul by discourse."


Rhetoric1

Rhetoric

Aristotle:Rhetoric is "the faculty of discovering in any particular case all of the available

means of persuasion.


Rhetoric2

Rhetoric

Francis Bacon: Rhetoric is the application of reason to imagination "for the better

moving of the will."


Rhetoric3

Rhetoric

The study or art of using language persuasively and effectively.


Applying rhetoric
Applying Rhetoric

  • A child asks his parents why he has to go to bed.


Aristotle
Aristotle

  • Logos: Because you’re growing. You need your rest. You had a long day today. You want to be ready for Disneyland tomorrow.


Aristotle1
Aristotle

  • Pathos: Because the boogey man and the monster that lives in your closet will get you and because Santa won’t bring you any toys.


Aristotle2
Aristotle

  • Ethos: Because, as you know, I love you and want the best for you, and I said so.


Aristotle3
Aristotle

  • Ethos: The writer’s/speaker’s character or image

  • Logos: Logical Arguments

  • Pathos: The emotions of the audience


Appeals present in arguments

Appeals present in arguments:

Follow along on your handouts


Ethos
Ethos

  • so let’s pretind that I am givin this presentation on rhetoric to y’all and my slide luks like this…do you beleive me! Why should you right? LOL—haha.

  • R U taking me serioulsy yet?

  • As a teecher, do you beleive what i am saying?


Writer must keep purpose in mind

support a cause

promote a change

refute a theory

stimulate interest

win agreement

arouse sympathy

provoke anger.

Writer must keep Purpose in mind:


Writer must keep audience in mind
Writer must keep AUDIENCE in mind:

  • Who exactly is the audience?

  • What do they know?

  • What do they believe?

  • What do they expect?

  • How will my audience disagree with me?


Writer must keep audience in mind1
Writer must keep AUDIENCE in mind:

  • What will they want me to address or answer?

  • How can I—or should I—use jargon?

  • Should I use language that is formal, factual, and objective; or familiar, anecdotal, and personal?


Ways to persuade

Ways to persuade:

Rhetorical Tropes and Schemes


Ways to persuade1

Antithesis

Aphorism

Apostrophe

Chiasmus

Cliche’

Hyperbole

Irony

Metaphor

Metonym

Onomatopoeia

Paradox

Parallelism

Paralipsis

Personification

Rhetorical Question

Synaesthesia

Synecdoche

Ways to persuade


Ways to persuade2

Allusion

Anaphora

Polysyndeton

Asyndeton

Epistrophe

Repetition

Alliteration

Consonance

Ways to persuade


Logical fallacies

Logical fallacies

ad hominem fallacy: Attacking a person’s character


Logical fallacies1

Logical fallacies

ad populum fallacy: “to the crowd,” a misconception that a widespread occurrence of something is assumed


Logical fallacies2

Logical fallacies

circular reasoning: trying to prove one idea with another idea that is too similar to the first idea; such logical

ways moves backwards in its attempt to move forward


Logical fallacies3

Logical fallacies

either/or reasoning: the tendency to see an issue as having only two sides


Logical fallacies4

Logical fallacies

hasty generalization: drawing a general and premature conclusion on the basis of only one or two cases


Logical fallacies5

Logical fallacies

non sequitur: “it does not follow,” an inference or conclusion that does not follow from established


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