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THE SKILLFUL TEACHER. Stephen Brookfield Distinguished University Professor University of St. Thomas Minneapolis-St. Paul. ASSUMPTIONS OF SKILLFUL TEACHING. Good teaching = whatever helps students learn Best teaching is critically reflective

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the skillful teacher

THESKILLFULTEACHER

Stephen Brookfield

Distinguished University Professor

University of St. Thomas

Minneapolis-St. Paul

assumptions of skillful teaching
ASSUMPTIONS OF SKILLFUL TEACHING
  • Good teaching = whatever helps students learn
  • Best teaching is critically reflective
  • Most important teaching knowledge we need: how students experience learning
critical incident questionnaire ciq
CRITICAL INCIDENT QUESTIONNAIRE (CIQ)
  • Moment Most Engaged as a Learner
  • Moment Most Distanced as a Learner
  • Action Most Affirming/Helpful
  • Action Most Puzzling/Confusing
  • What Surprised You Most
how to use the ciq
HOW TO USE THE CIQ
  • Last 5 minutes of last class
  • Anonymous
  • Reviewed at beginning of next week’s class
  • Illustrates diversity in class
  • Allows you to emphasize why class is organized as it is
  • Negotiation is NOT capitulation
benefits of ciq
BENEFITS OF CIQ
  • Helps you take informed actions
  • Builds a case for using multiple methods and techniques with students
  • Allows you to catch problems, confusions & misunderstandings early
  • Builds trust
  • Models Critical Thinking
what students value in teachers
WHAT STUDENTS VALUE IN TEACHERS

CREDIBILITY

  • Expertise (you really know your stuff)
  • Experience (as a real life worker & as a teacher)
  • Rationale (you have a thought through plan of action)
  • Conviction (that the learning is important)
authenticity
AUTHENTICITY
  • Congruence (between your words & actions)
  • Full Disclosure (of your expectations & criteria)
  • Responsiveness (to students’ learning difficulties)
  • Personhood (appropriate autobiographical examples)
emotional rhythms
EMOTIONAL RHYTHMS
  • IMPOSTORSHIP
  • CULTURAL SUICIDE
  • LOST INNOCENCE
  • ROADRUNNING
why lecture
WHY LECTURE?
  • Provide overview/outline of a broad body of material
  • To explain and illustrate with examples difficult ideas & concepts
  • To introduce alternative perspectives & interpretations
  • To model intellectual attitudes and behaviors
  • To encourage learners’ interest in a topic
use a variety of approaches
USE A VARIETY OF APPROACHES
  • Chunked in 15 minute segments
  • Structured Silent writing (3 minutes) - most important/confusing point, question / illustration of concept. Shuffle these & ask students to read them or read them yourself.
  • Buzz groups
  • Lecture from ‘Siberia’
  • Assign Roles to Students each week - summarizer, devil’s advocate
  • Team lecturing with peer critique
variety of approaches
VARIETY OF APPROACHES
  • Video clips
  • Spot the deliberate teacher error (when you contradict yourself, say something clearly inaccurate etc.)
  • Example inventories - students provide examples to show they’ve understood concepts you’ve covered (on 3x5, newsprint, blackboard on online)
organized as helpful informational maps
ORGANIZED AS HELPFUL INFORMATIONAL MAPS
  • Scaffolding Notes - Main headings & sub-headings with space for examples
  • Clear verbal signals - global (now a whole new area is being introduced), key point (a main idea is being explored), example, meta-review
  • Frequent summaries
  • Where are we now?
model learning behaviors
MODEL LEARNING BEHAVIORS
  • Begin with questions the lecture will try to answer
  • End with questions the lecture has raised
  • Structured Devil’s Advocacy
  • Assumption Hunting
  • Team teaching - peer critique
lesson planning
LESSON PLANNING
  • Multiple Modalities (aim for 3 per lesson) - e.g. lecturing, demonstration, small group application, silent writing, visual illustration, newsprint dialog
  • Lesson Structure depends on learning you wish to achieve
  • CIQ will tell you what is working & for how many
lesson planning contd
LESSON PLANNING contd.
  • Frequent recaps
  • Frequent explanations
  • Regular example exercises - students write (on 3x5, on newsprint, or on board) examples to illustrate a skill or idea you’re teaching
  • Tie each learning activity to homework
final thoughts
FINAL THOUGHTS
  • Beware the ‘Perfect Ten’ syndrome
  • Teaching is “Informed Muddling Through”
  • Don’t be who you aren’t
  • Resistance / Hostility are normal & not caused by you
  • Never underestimate your power
resources
RESOURCES
  • www.stephenbrookfield.com
  • THE SKILLFUL TEACHER
  • DISCUSSION AS A WAY OF TEACHING
  • BECOMING A CRITICALLY REFLECTIVE TEACHER

All available from Jossey-Bass Publishers (San Francisco) www.josseybass.com

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