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THE SKILLFUL TEACHER. Stephen Brookfield Distinguished University Professor University of St. Thomas Minneapolis-St. Paul. ASSUMPTIONS OF SKILLFUL TEACHING. Good teaching = whatever helps students learn Best teaching is critically reflective

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THE SKILLFUL TEACHER

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THESKILLFULTEACHER

Stephen Brookfield

Distinguished University Professor

University of St. Thomas

Minneapolis-St. Paul


ASSUMPTIONS OF SKILLFUL TEACHING

  • Good teaching = whatever helps students learn

  • Best teaching is critically reflective

  • Most important teaching knowledge we need: how students experience learning


CRITICAL INCIDENT QUESTIONNAIRE (CIQ)

  • Moment Most Engaged as a Learner

  • Moment Most Distanced as a Learner

  • Action Most Affirming/Helpful

  • Action Most Puzzling/Confusing

  • What Surprised You Most


HOW TO USE THE CIQ

  • Last 5 minutes of last class

  • Anonymous

  • Reviewed at beginning of next week’s class

  • Illustrates diversity in class

  • Allows you to emphasize why class is organized as it is

  • Negotiation is NOT capitulation


BENEFITS OF CIQ

  • Helps you take informed actions

  • Builds a case for using multiple methods and techniques with students

  • Allows you to catch problems, confusions & misunderstandings early

  • Builds trust

  • Models Critical Thinking


WHAT STUDENTS VALUE IN TEACHERS

CREDIBILITY

  • Expertise (you really know your stuff)

  • Experience (as a real life worker & as a teacher)

  • Rationale (you have a thought through plan of action)

  • Conviction (that the learning is important)


AUTHENTICITY

  • Congruence (between your words & actions)

  • Full Disclosure (of your expectations & criteria)

  • Responsiveness (to students’ learning difficulties)

  • Personhood (appropriate autobiographical examples)


EMOTIONAL RHYTHMS

  • IMPOSTORSHIP

  • CULTURAL SUICIDE

  • LOST INNOCENCE

  • ROADRUNNING


WHY LECTURE?

  • Provide overview/outline of a broad body of material

  • To explain and illustrate with examples difficult ideas & concepts

  • To introduce alternative perspectives & interpretations

  • To model intellectual attitudes and behaviors

  • To encourage learners’ interest in a topic


USE A VARIETY OF APPROACHES

  • Chunked in 15 minute segments

  • Structured Silent writing (3 minutes) - most important/confusing point, question / illustration of concept. Shuffle these & ask students to read them or read them yourself.

  • Buzz groups

  • Lecture from ‘Siberia’

  • Assign Roles to Students each week - summarizer, devil’s advocate

  • Team lecturing with peer critique


VARIETY OF APPROACHES

  • Video clips

  • Spot the deliberate teacher error (when you contradict yourself, say something clearly inaccurate etc.)

  • Example inventories - students provide examples to show they’ve understood concepts you’ve covered (on 3x5, newsprint, blackboard on online)


ORGANIZED AS HELPFUL INFORMATIONAL MAPS

  • Scaffolding Notes - Main headings & sub-headings with space for examples

  • Clear verbal signals - global (now a whole new area is being introduced), key point (a main idea is being explored), example, meta-review

  • Frequent summaries

  • Where are we now?


MODEL LEARNING BEHAVIORS

  • Begin with questions the lecture will try to answer

  • End with questions the lecture has raised

  • Structured Devil’s Advocacy

  • Assumption Hunting

  • Team teaching - peer critique


LESSON PLANNING

  • Multiple Modalities (aim for 3 per lesson) - e.g. lecturing, demonstration, small group application, silent writing, visual illustration, newsprint dialog

  • Lesson Structure depends on learning you wish to achieve

  • CIQ will tell you what is working & for how many


LESSON PLANNING contd.

  • Frequent recaps

  • Frequent explanations

  • Regular example exercises - students write (on 3x5, on newsprint, or on board) examples to illustrate a skill or idea you’re teaching

  • Tie each learning activity to homework


FINAL THOUGHTS

  • Beware the ‘Perfect Ten’ syndrome

  • Teaching is “Informed Muddling Through”

  • Don’t be who you aren’t

  • Resistance / Hostility are normal & not caused by you

  • Never underestimate your power


RESOURCES

  • www.stephenbrookfield.com

  • THE SKILLFUL TEACHER

  • DISCUSSION AS A WAY OF TEACHING

  • BECOMING A CRITICALLY REFLECTIVE TEACHER

    All available from Jossey-Bass Publishers (San Francisco) www.josseybass.com


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