Astronomy = the study of the universe
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Astronomy = the study of the universe. Astro = star Centr = center Geo = earth Retro = back Pre = before Peri = around Mar = ocean Terre = ground Sol = sun Chrom = color pro = first. Astronomical History!. Geocentric Model = moon, sun and planets orbit Earth.

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Astronomy = the study of the universe

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Astronomy the study of the universe

Astronomy = the study of the universe

Astro = star

Centr = center

Geo = earth

Retro = back

Pre = before

Peri = around

Mar = ocean

Terre = ground

Sol = sun

Chrom = color

pro = first


Astronomy the study of the universe

Astronomical History!

  • Geocentric Model = moon, sun and planets orbit Earth.


Astronomy the study of the universe

Astronomical History!

  • Heliocentric Model = Earth and other planets orbit sun.


Astronomy the study of the universe

Astronomical History!

  • Ptolemaic System = Planets orbit Earth, but seemed to exhibit retrograde motion.


Astronomy the study of the universe

Astronomical History!

Brahe: Yes, but my observations are much more precise.

Copernicus: Earth is a planet that orbits the sun.

Kepler: No, my 3 laws of planetary motionprove that Brahe is wrong.

Newton: The planets are held into a circle by the gravity of the sun.

Galileo: Well, here is how the planets and their satellites move.


Astronomy the study of the universe

Earth – Moon - Sun

Rotation = spinning

Revolution = going around another object

Earth Rotating http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a001300/a001374/index.html

Perihelion

Aphelion

CLOSEST

FARTHEST


Astronomy the study of the universe

SEASONS

Plane of the Ecliptic = reference plane that runs from pole to pole.

Plane is tilted about 23.5o.

Seasons are result of the tilt.


Astronomy the study of the universe

More Earth Movement

Precession = very slow wobbling

http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Milankovitch/Images/milankovitch_precess_high.mov


Astronomy the study of the universe

Earth - Moon

Perigee = moon is closest to earth

Apogee = moon is farthest from earth


Astronomy the study of the universe

Phases of the Moon

http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/10001-the-moon-phases-video.htm


Astronomy the study of the universe

NAME THAT PHASE!


Astronomy the study of the universe

ECLIPSE

Solar eclipse = moon is between earth and sun (like the background here!) and casts a shadow on Earth.

Lunar eclipse = Earth moves between sun and moon and casts shadow on moon.


Astronomy the study of the universe

Man on the Moon

http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/World-News/Nasa-Releases-Footage-Of-Moon-Landing-When-Astronaut-Neil-Armstong-Took-First-Steps-On-July-20-1969/Article/200907315338603


Astronomy the study of the universe

Earth’s Moon

  • Gravity 1/6th that of Earth

  • 150 lb person = 25 lbs

  • The Only Natural Satellite

  • 1/4th diameter of Earth

  • Apollo moon mission 1969-1972


Astronomy the study of the universe

  • Craters

  • round depressions

  • produced by impacts

Compresses surface material.

Impact by meteor.

Rebound splash of ejecta.

Uplift of deep rock in center.


Astronomy the study of the universe

Major Topographic features of the Moon:

Highlands = light colored areas (almost as high as Mt. Everest!)

Mare (Maria, pl.) = dark smooth areas (ancient beds of lava)

Rilles are valleys or trenches.

Regolith = soil-like layer


Astronomy the study of the universe

Lunar History

When solar system was forming, a body the size of Mars impacted Earth and the debris shot into space. One piece was our Moon.

How the Moon Formed http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/9998-the-moon-formation-video.htm


Astronomy the study of the universe

Formation of the Solar System

Nebular Theory = sun and planets formed from a rotating disk of dust and gases.

Planetesimals = small, irregular-shaped bodies that collided and clumped together to form the planets.

The Solar System

Terrestrial Planet = small and rocky (inner planets)

Jovian Planet = large gaseous (outer planets)

http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=21B610C4-B1BB-40E0-8760-825A41B19E12&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US


Astronomy the study of the universe

Asteroids = small, rocky bodies floating in space

(Largest, Ceres, is about 1000 km in diameter!)

Comets = pieces of rocky and metallic materials held together

by frozen gases like water, ammonia, methane, etc.

(Some take hundreds of thousands of years to make one orbit.)

Small Pieces (w/Quiz) http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=BD722E4D-32D2-4342-B475-F031BFDC4EEC&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US


Astronomy the study of the universe

Coma = the glowing head of a comet produced when the sun begins vaporizing the comet’s frozen gases.

Tail = stream of glowing vaporizing gases

Halley’s Comet

76-yr-orbit


Astronomy the study of the universe

Kuiper Belt = disc-shaped region beyond Neptune where short-orbital comets originate.

Oort Cloud = area spreading in all directions from the sun where long-orbital comets originate.


Astronomy the study of the universe

  • Meteoroid

  • small, solid particle

  • travels through space

  • origination

    • interplanetary debris

    • asteroid belt material

    • remains of comets

METEORS!

  • Meteor

  • meteoroid that enters Earth’s atmosphere

  • Meteor Shower = a group of meteors traveling in the same direction

Meteor in Peru 2007 http://news.bbc.co.uk/player/nol/newsid_7000000/newsid_7002300/7002376.stm?bw=bb&mp=wm&asb=1&news=1&ms3=54&ms_javascript=true&bbcws=2


Astronomy the study of the universe

The SUN

Photosphere = visible surface (90% hydrogen)

Chromosphere = thin layer of hot gases (can see during solar eclipse)

Corona= weak outermost layer (extends 1 million km)

Solar wind = streams of protons and electrons


Astronomy the study of the universe

Corona

Convective Zone

Radiative Zone

Core

Photosphere

Earth

Chromosphere


Astronomy the study of the universe

Activity of the Sun:

Sunspots= appear dark because they are cooler than the rest of the sun.

http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/sun/atmosphere/sun_rotate_anim_jan2005.html&edu=high

Prominences= large cloudlike structures consisting of chromospheric gases.


Astronomy the study of the universe

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://veimages.gsfc.nasa.gov/10194/a001168_pre.jpg&imgrefurl=http://visibleearth.nasa.gov/view_rec.php%3Fid%3D10194&usg=__0rK1487FipNjvZgrwD7bE1yTeO8=&h=242&w=320&sz=7&hl=en&start=13&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=rfP8CkCb5ln2KM:&tbnh=89&tbnw=118&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsolar%2Bflare%2Banimation%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26um%3D1

  • Solar Flares

  • explosive events

  • last about an hour

  • sudden brightening above a sunspot cluster

  • release enormous amounts of energy

  • ejects atomic particles

  • produce auroras (northern lights)

http://images.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/3000/3912/flare_soh_2003301.jpg&imgrefurl=http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php%3Fid%3D3912&usg=__1KWUaN-ZdTALrPPKRSxiynbT1xU=&h=865&w=540&sz=74&hl=en&start=3&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=jLzIYZNVqdx_VM:&tbnh=145&tbnw=91&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dsolar%2Bflare%2Banimation%26ndsp%3D20%26hl%3Den%26safe%3Dactive%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us%26um%3D1


Astronomy the study of the universe

It’s how far??!!

1 Light Year = how far light travels in one year. Light travels at 299,792,458 m/s so in one year light goes 5.88 trillion (5.88 × 1012) miles.

1 A.U. (Astronomical Unit) is the distance from the Earth to the Sun which is 150 million km (93 million miles).


Astronomy the study of the universe

Earth’s diameter = 7,926 miles


Astronomy the study of the universe

Sun’s diameter = 870,000 miles


Astronomy the study of the universe

Sirius is the brightest star in the night-time sky. It is located in the constellation Canis Major. It is 8.5 light years away.

Pollux is 33.7 light years away.

Arcturus is 36.7 light years away.


Astronomy the study of the universe

ANTARES IS THE 15TH BRIGHTEST STAR IN THE SKY. IT IS MORE THAN 1000 LIGHT YEARS AWAY.


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