Astronomy = the study of the universe. Astro = star Centr = center Geo = earth Retro = back Pre = before Peri = around Mar = ocean Terre = ground Sol = sun Chrom = color pro = first. Astronomical History!. Geocentric Model = moon, sun and planets orbit Earth.
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Astro = star
Centr = center
Geo = earth
Retro = back
Pre = before
Peri = around
Mar = ocean
Terre = ground
Sol = sun
Chrom = color
pro = first
Brahe: Yes, but my observations are much more precise.
Copernicus: Earth is a planet that orbits the sun.
Kepler: No, my 3 laws of planetary motionprove that Brahe is wrong.
Newton: The planets are held into a circle by the gravity of the sun.
Galileo: Well, here is how the planets and their satellites move.
Rotation = spinning
Revolution = going around another object
Earth Rotating http://svs.gsfc.nasa.gov/vis/a000000/a001300/a001374/index.html
Plane of the Ecliptic = reference plane that runs from pole to pole.
Plane is tilted about 23.5o.
Seasons are result of the tilt.
Precession = very slow wobbling
Perigee = moon is closest to earth
Apogee = moon is farthest from earth
Solar eclipse = moon is between earth and sun (like the background here!) and casts a shadow on Earth.
Lunar eclipse = Earth moves between sun and moon and casts shadow on moon.
Compresses surface material.
Impact by meteor.
Rebound splash of ejecta.
Uplift of deep rock in center.
Highlands = light colored areas (almost as high as Mt. Everest!)
Mare (Maria, pl.) = dark smooth areas (ancient beds of lava)
Rilles are valleys or trenches.
Regolith = soil-like layer
When solar system was forming, a body the size of Mars impacted Earth and the debris shot into space. One piece was our Moon.
How the Moon Formed http://videos.howstuffworks.com/hsw/9998-the-moon-formation-video.htm
Nebular Theory = sun and planets formed from a rotating disk of dust and gases.
Planetesimals = small, irregular-shaped bodies that collided and clumped together to form the planets.
The Solar System
Terrestrial Planet = small and rocky (inner planets)
Jovian Planet = large gaseous (outer planets)
(Largest, Ceres, is about 1000 km in diameter!)
Comets = pieces of rocky and metallic materials held together
by frozen gases like water, ammonia, methane, etc.
(Some take hundreds of thousands of years to make one orbit.)
Small Pieces (w/Quiz) http://player.discoveryeducation.com/index.cfm?guidAssetId=BD722E4D-32D2-4342-B475-F031BFDC4EEC&blnFromSearch=1&productcode=US
Coma = the glowing head of a comet produced when the sun begins vaporizing the comet’s frozen gases.
Tail = stream of glowing vaporizing gases
Kuiper Belt = disc-shaped region beyond Neptune where short-orbital comets originate.
Oort Cloud = area spreading in all directions from the sun where long-orbital comets originate.
Photosphere = visible surface (90% hydrogen)
Chromosphere = thin layer of hot gases (can see during solar eclipse)
Corona= weak outermost layer (extends 1 million km)
Solar wind = streams of protons and electrons
Sunspots= appear dark because they are cooler than the rest of the sun.
Prominences= large cloudlike structures consisting of chromospheric gases.
1 Light Year = how far light travels in one year. Light travels at 299,792,458 m/s so in one year light goes 5.88 trillion (5.88 × 1012) miles.
1 A.U. (Astronomical Unit) is the distance from the Earth to the Sun which is 150 million km (93 million miles).
Sirius is the brightest star in the night-time sky. It is located in the constellation Canis Major. It is 8.5 light years away.
Pollux is 33.7 light years away.
Arcturus is 36.7 light years away.
ANTARES IS THE 15TH BRIGHTEST STAR IN THE SKY. IT IS MORE THAN 1000 LIGHT YEARS AWAY.