Phase equilibrium
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Phase Equilibrium. A phase : a physically distinct portion of a system that is separated from the other portion by a boundary. A component : a chemically different constituents that participates in the formation of phases. Example :. Ice cubes. Two Phases One Component. water.

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Phase Equilibrium

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Phase equilibrium

Phase Equilibrium

  • A phase : a physically distinct portion of a system that is separated from the other portion by a boundary.

  • A component : a chemically different constituents that participates in the formation of phases.


Example

Example:

Ice cubes

Two Phases

One Component

water


Phase equilibrium

Gibbs’ Phase Rule

  • used to determine the degree of freedom which is the least number of independent variables, e.g.: temperature, pressure, and concentration affecting various phases at equilibrium.

  • F = C – P + 2

  • Where;

  • F is the no. of degrees of freedom.

  • Cis the no. of components.

  • Pis the no. of phases exist in equilibrium.


Phase equilibrium

  • Solids are soluble in liquids , while liquids are miscible in liquids.

  • Types of miscibility:

miscible

Partially miscible

immiscible

Ethyl alcohol /water

phenol / water

mercury / water


Phase equilibrium

Factors affecting miscibility of phenol in water:

1- Concentration

Water rich phase

few drops of phenol

few mls of phenol

Phenol rich phase

Water / phenol

One phase

water / phenol

Two phases


Phase equilibrium

Factors affecting miscibility of phenol in water:

2- Temperature

Increase temperature

Critical Soln. Temperature

“upper consolute temp.”


Determination of critical solution temperature of phenol water system

Determination of critical solution temperature of phenol/ water system:

Tie the ampoule with a thread

If the difference between the temp. at which turbidity disappears and re-appears is > 2ºC, heat again and record the temp. at which turbidity disappears again.

Suspend the amp. So that the contents of the ampoule must be completely immersed in the water bath

Record the temperature at which the turbidity disappears (T1) using a thermometer

In a beaker put water to form water bath

Heat WB gradually with continuous shaking of the amp up & down

Turn off the flame and record the temperature at which turbidity re-appears (T2)


Precautions

Precautions :

1- Be very cautious with the ampoule (phenol injury is 3rd degree burn).

2- Suspended ampoule must not touch the wall or bottom of the beaker.

3- when recording the temperature, the suspended thermometer must not touch the wall or bottom of the beaker.

4- If the difference between the temp. at which turbidity disappears and re-appears is > 2ºC, heat again and record the temp. at which turbidity disappears again.


Phase equilibrium

Draw graph:


Phase equilibrium

Exam

83%


Phase equilibrium

Thank YOU


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