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Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice?. Ralf Döring University of Greifswald. FAME Workshop June 6-8 2007. 550 Years 1456-2006. Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald. Overview.

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management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice?

Ralf Döring

University of Greifswald

overview

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Overview
  • Natura 2000 – New tool for nature conservation
    • Economic perspective
    • Network in Germany’s coastal waters and EEZ
  • Fisheries economics and the ecosystem approach
    • Background
    • Experiences
  • Management plans in Natura 2000 sites
  • Conclusions/Outlook
natura 2000 new tool for nature conservation

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – New tool for nature conservation
  • EU Bird- and Flora Fauna Habitat-Directive defines species and habitats which are to preserve
  • Obligation of member states to designate areas
  • Six years after designation the status of species and habitats must be reviewed
  • If some degradation happend further restrictions on activities
natura 2000 economic perspective

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – Economic perspective
  • Weak Sustainability
    • Overall capital stock, Measuring benefits and costs of individual projects

(sand and gravel removal, fishing, wind parks) => ‚relative scarcity‘, ‚efficient investments‘

  • Strong Sustainability
    • Preservation of a certain amount of ‚natural capital‘ to preserve ecological services, long-term resource use

‚absolut scarcity‘, efficient resource use‘

natura 2000 economic perspective1

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – Economic perspective
  • Switch from the ‚normal‘ case of Cost-Benefit-Analysis to setting of limits to the use of resources/areas/ species etc.
  • Natura 2000 sites: minimum level necessary to preserve ‚unsubstitutable‘ ecological services
  • Role of Economics
    • Limits set target reference points (standards)
    • Economists shall calculate efficient ways to hold the limits
    • Fisheries will phase restrictions on fishing practice in Natura 2000 sites => opportunity costs?
slide6

SPA (Birds)

Natura 2000 sites – North Sea

FFH-Directive

Source: www.habitatmarenatura2000.de

slide7

SPA (Birds)

FFH-Directive

Natura 2000 sites – Baltic Sea

Source: www.habitatmarenatura2000.de

slide8

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

  • Multi-species-models
  • Optimisation models (long-term yields)
  • Interactions between fish stocks and the environment (pollution?)
slide9

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

Human

Seals

Cod

Salmon

Herring

Sprat

Other

fish species feeding

plankton

Juvenile Cod

Mysidaceen

Mysidaceen

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

Big zooplankton

Herring

Sprat

Cod

Small zooplankton

Cod eggs

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton

& Bacteria

Nutrients

Source: Döring et al. 2005

slide10

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

  • Multi-species-models
  • Optimisation models (long-term yields)
  • Interactions between fish stocks and the environment (pollution?)
  • Sustainable fisheries
sustainable fisheries
Stock perspective

Precautionary approach (Bpa, Blim, minimum stock size)

Long-term management plans

Recovery of overused stocks

Ecosystem perspective

External Effects – Measurement

Opportunity costs of fishing methods

Preserving ecosystem services

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Sustainable Fisheries

Combined ecological/economic research!

fisheries economics and the ecosystem based approach experiences

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Typical Quote - Economist

„Why we should care about the environment? We care

about the fishing sector, the fishermen, human activities

and nothing else.“

slide13

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Typical Quote - Ecologist

„Why should we care about fishermen? We care about the fish

stocks, the environment. Fisheries ruin the ecosystems.“

slide14

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

  • Problem: How to reach a sustainable Baltic Cod fishery (overused stock, many external effects (esp. bird bycatch)?
  • Two phase strategy developed in a paper:
    • recover the cod stock as most necessary action for Baltic Cod,
    • afterwards switch to longlines as fishing method with few negative ecological consequences (then economically possible)
  • Result: Sustainable Fishery (healthy stock, few negative externalities)?
  • Reviewer: I‘m deeply worried about using a single-species approach when you want to describe an ecosystem-based-approach – you need a multi-species-model!
slide15

Human

Seals

Cod

Salmon

Herring

Sprat

Other

fish species feeding

plankton

Juvenile Cod

Mysidaceen

Mysidaceen

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

Big zooplankton

Herring

Sprat

Cod

Small zooplankton

Cod eggs

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton

& Bacteria

Nutrients

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Remember!

management plans in natura 2000 sites

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites
  • Natura 2000 sites in German waters need management plans in a few years
  • Debate started what and how to manage
  • Lack of data on many ecological conse-quences of fishing
    • Bird bycatch
    • Marine Mammal bycatch
    • Exact fishing grounds of fishing with trawls
    • Etc.
fishing effort and bird densities
Fishing effort and bird densities

Clangula hyemalis density and gill nets

Source: Döring et al. 2005

slide18

Trawling in sensitive habitats

Sensitive habitats at Kriegers Flak

Sand and gravel

areas

Trawling tracks

Source: Döring et al. 2005

slide19

Fishing effort by German

vessels in the ICES rectangles

38G3

Trawling in sensitive habitats

Source: Döring et al. 2005

management plans in natura 2000 sites1

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites
  • Suggestion: Few negative impacts of trawling in 38 G3 and Kriegers Flak but

some change in fishing practice seems necessary to reach the goals

=> Opportunity Costs!

Example: Cod fishery again – fishing methods and costs

fishing methods longlines vs trawls
Fishing methods – Longlines vs. Trawls

*Estimation of costs compared to allowed landings (row 1 and 2: recovery phase, row

3 + 4: after recovery, stock above Bpa

slide23

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Problem: Some change in fishing practice seems necessary to reach the goals
    • > Opportunity Costs!
  • Solutions:
    • 1. Calculation of these opportunity costs (research planned with commercial fishing vessels)
    • 2. If Opportunity Costs are severe payments for fishermen who avoid external effects (like agri-environmental schemes) – Impossible at the moment
    • 3. Certification possible? Selling of fish from these areas under a certain label.
conclusions outlook

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Conclusions/Outlook
  • Impact assessments are the first joint efforts in STECF – problems on both sites
  • Work ont joined environmental and economic goals (stock levels, less negative impacts, etc.) with an idea about the future of fishing fleets
  • Natura 2000 managment plans will be a field of joint advice
  • It takes some time to learn at least the basics of biology/ecology as economists and vice versa
  • More complex models may not be the solution!
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