Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice
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Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice?. Ralf Döring University of Greifswald. FAME Workshop June 6-8 2007. 550 Years 1456-2006. Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald. Overview.

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Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice?

Ralf Döring

University of Greifswald


Overview

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Overview

  • Natura 2000 – New tool for nature conservation

    • Economic perspective

    • Network in Germany’s coastal waters and EEZ

  • Fisheries economics and the ecosystem approach

    • Background

    • Experiences

  • Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Conclusions/Outlook


Natura 2000 new tool for nature conservation

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – New tool for nature conservation

  • EU Bird- and Flora Fauna Habitat-Directive defines species and habitats which are to preserve

  • Obligation of member states to designate areas

  • Six years after designation the status of species and habitats must be reviewed

  • If some degradation happend further restrictions on activities


Natura 2000 economic perspective

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – Economic perspective

  • Weak Sustainability

    • Overall capital stock, Measuring benefits and costs of individual projects

      (sand and gravel removal, fishing, wind parks) => ‚relative scarcity‘, ‚efficient investments‘

  • Strong Sustainability

    • Preservation of a certain amount of ‚natural capital‘ to preserve ecological services, long-term resource use

      ‚absolut scarcity‘, efficient resource use‘


Natura 2000 economic perspective1

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – Economic perspective

  • Switch from the ‚normal‘ case of Cost-Benefit-Analysis to setting of limits to the use of resources/areas/ species etc.

  • Natura 2000 sites: minimum level necessary to preserve ‚unsubstitutable‘ ecological services

  • Role of Economics

    • Limits set target reference points (standards)

    • Economists shall calculate efficient ways to hold the limits

    • Fisheries will phase restrictions on fishing practice in Natura 2000 sites => opportunity costs?


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

SPA (Birds)

Natura 2000 sites – North Sea

FFH-Directive

Source: www.habitatmarenatura2000.de


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

SPA (Birds)

FFH-Directive

Natura 2000 sites – Baltic Sea

Source: www.habitatmarenatura2000.de


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

  • Multi-species-models

  • Optimisation models (long-term yields)

  • Interactions between fish stocks and the environment (pollution?)


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

Human

Seals

Cod

Salmon

Herring

Sprat

Other

fish species feeding

plankton

Juvenile Cod

Mysidaceen

Mysidaceen

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

Big zooplankton

Herring

Sprat

Cod

Small zooplankton

Cod eggs

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton

& Bacteria

Nutrients

Source: Döring et al. 2005


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

  • Multi-species-models

  • Optimisation models (long-term yields)

  • Interactions between fish stocks and the environment (pollution?)

  • Sustainable fisheries


Sustainable fisheries

Stock perspective

Precautionary approach (Bpa, Blim, minimum stock size)

Long-term management plans

Recovery of overused stocks

Ecosystem perspective

External Effects – Measurement

Opportunity costs of fishing methods

Preserving ecosystem services

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Sustainable Fisheries

Combined ecological/economic research!


Fisheries economics and the ecosystem based approach experiences

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Typical Quote - Economist

„Why we should care about the environment? We care

about the fishing sector, the fishermen, human activities

and nothing else.“


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Typical Quote - Ecologist

„Why should we care about fishermen? We care about the fish

stocks, the environment. Fisheries ruin the ecosystems.“


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

  • Problem: How to reach a sustainable Baltic Cod fishery (overused stock, many external effects (esp. bird bycatch)?

  • Two phase strategy developed in a paper:

    • recover the cod stock as most necessary action for Baltic Cod,

    • afterwards switch to longlines as fishing method with few negative ecological consequences (then economically possible)

  • Result: Sustainable Fishery (healthy stock, few negative externalities)?

  • Reviewer: I‘m deeply worried about using a single-species approach when you want to describe an ecosystem-based-approach – you need a multi-species-model!


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

Human

Seals

Cod

Salmon

Herring

Sprat

Other

fish species feeding

plankton

Juvenile Cod

Mysidaceen

Mysidaceen

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

Big zooplankton

Herring

Sprat

Cod

Small zooplankton

Cod eggs

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton

& Bacteria

Nutrients

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Remember!


Management plans in natura 2000 sites

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Natura 2000 sites in German waters need management plans in a few years

  • Debate started what and how to manage

  • Lack of data on many ecological conse-quences of fishing

    • Bird bycatch

    • Marine Mammal bycatch

    • Exact fishing grounds of fishing with trawls

    • Etc.


Fishing effort and bird densities

Fishing effort and bird densities

Clangula hyemalis density and gill nets

Source: Döring et al. 2005


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

Trawling in sensitive habitats

Sensitive habitats at Kriegers Flak

Sand and gravel

areas

Trawling tracks

Source: Döring et al. 2005


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

Fishing effort by German

vessels in the ICES rectangles

38G3

Trawling in sensitive habitats

Source: Döring et al. 2005


Management plans in natura 2000 sites1

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Suggestion: Few negative impacts of trawling in 38 G3 and Kriegers Flak but

    some change in fishing practice seems necessary to reach the goals

    => Opportunity Costs!

    Example: Cod fishery again – fishing methods and costs


Fishing methods and external effects

Fishing methods and external effects


Fishing methods longlines vs trawls

Fishing methods – Longlines vs. Trawls

*Estimation of costs compared to allowed landings (row 1 and 2: recovery phase, row

3 + 4: after recovery, stock above Bpa


Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Problem: Some change in fishing practice seems necessary to reach the goals

    • > Opportunity Costs!

  • Solutions:

    • 1. Calculation of these opportunity costs (research planned with commercial fishing vessels)

    • 2. If Opportunity Costs are severe payments for fishermen who avoid external effects (like agri-environmental schemes) – Impossible at the moment

    • 3. Certification possible? Selling of fish from these areas under a certain label.


Conclusions outlook

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Conclusions/Outlook

  • Impact assessments are the first joint efforts in STECF – problems on both sites

  • Work ont joined environmental and economic goals (stock levels, less negative impacts, etc.) with an idea about the future of fishing fleets

  • Natura 2000 managment plans will be a field of joint advice

  • It takes some time to learn at least the basics of biology/ecology as economists and vice versa

  • More complex models may not be the solution!


Thank you very much

Thank you very much!


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