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Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice?. Ralf Döring University of Greifswald. FAME Workshop June 6-8 2007. 550 Years 1456-2006. Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald. Overview.

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Management plans for natura 2000 sites an area for combined ecological economic advice

Management plans for Natura 2000 sites - an area for combined ecological/economic advice?

Ralf Döring

University of Greifswald


Overview

FAME Workshop combined ecological/economic advice?

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Overview

  • Natura 2000 – New tool for nature conservation

    • Economic perspective

    • Network in Germany’s coastal waters and EEZ

  • Fisheries economics and the ecosystem approach

    • Background

    • Experiences

  • Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Conclusions/Outlook


Natura 2000 new tool for nature conservation

FAME Workshop combined ecological/economic advice?

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – New tool for nature conservation

  • EU Bird- and Flora Fauna Habitat-Directive defines species and habitats which are to preserve

  • Obligation of member states to designate areas

  • Six years after designation the status of species and habitats must be reviewed

  • If some degradation happend further restrictions on activities


Natura 2000 economic perspective

FAME Workshop combined ecological/economic advice?

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – Economic perspective

  • Weak Sustainability

    • Overall capital stock, Measuring benefits and costs of individual projects

      (sand and gravel removal, fishing, wind parks) => ‚relative scarcity‘, ‚efficient investments‘

  • Strong Sustainability

    • Preservation of a certain amount of ‚natural capital‘ to preserve ecological services, long-term resource use

      ‚absolut scarcity‘, efficient resource use‘


Natura 2000 economic perspective1

FAME Workshop combined ecological/economic advice?

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Natura 2000 – Economic perspective

  • Switch from the ‚normal‘ case of Cost-Benefit-Analysis to setting of limits to the use of resources/areas/ species etc.

  • Natura 2000 sites: minimum level necessary to preserve ‚unsubstitutable‘ ecological services

  • Role of Economics

    • Limits set target reference points (standards)

    • Economists shall calculate efficient ways to hold the limits

    • Fisheries will phase restrictions on fishing practice in Natura 2000 sites => opportunity costs?


SPA (Birds) combined ecological/economic advice?

Natura 2000 sites – North Sea

FFH-Directive

Source: www.habitatmarenatura2000.de


SPA (Birds combined ecological/economic advice?)

FFH-Directive

Natura 2000 sites – Baltic Sea

Source: www.habitatmarenatura2000.de


FAME Workshop combined ecological/economic advice?

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

  • Multi-species-models

  • Optimisation models (long-term yields)

  • Interactions between fish stocks and the environment (pollution?)


Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

Human

Seals

Cod

Salmon

Herring

Sprat

Other

fish species feeding

plankton

Juvenile Cod

Mysidaceen

Mysidaceen

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

Big zooplankton

Herring

Sprat

Cod

Small zooplankton

Cod eggs

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton

& Bacteria

Nutrients

Source: Döring et al. 2005


FAME Workshop Background

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Background

  • Multi-species-models

  • Optimisation models (long-term yields)

  • Interactions between fish stocks and the environment (pollution?)

  • Sustainable fisheries


Sustainable fisheries

Stock perspective Background

Precautionary approach (Bpa, Blim, minimum stock size)

Long-term management plans

Recovery of overused stocks

Ecosystem perspective

External Effects – Measurement

Opportunity costs of fishing methods

Preserving ecosystem services

FAME Workshop

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Sustainable Fisheries

Combined ecological/economic research!


Fisheries economics and the ecosystem based approach experiences

FAME Workshop Background

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Typical Quote - Economist

„Why we should care about the environment? We care

about the fishing sector, the fishermen, human activities

and nothing else.“


FAME Workshop Background

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Typical Quote - Ecologist

„Why should we care about fishermen? We care about the fish

stocks, the environment. Fisheries ruin the ecosystems.“


FAME Workshop Background

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

  • Problem: How to reach a sustainable Baltic Cod fishery (overused stock, many external effects (esp. bird bycatch)?

  • Two phase strategy developed in a paper:

    • recover the cod stock as most necessary action for Baltic Cod,

    • afterwards switch to longlines as fishing method with few negative ecological consequences (then economically possible)

  • Result: Sustainable Fishery (healthy stock, few negative externalities)?

  • Reviewer: I‘m deeply worried about using a single-species approach when you want to describe an ecosystem-based-approach – you need a multi-species-model!


Human Background

Seals

Cod

Salmon

Herring

Sprat

Other

fish species feeding

plankton

Juvenile Cod

Mysidaceen

Mysidaceen

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

0

0

-

-

Group

Big zooplankton

Herring

Sprat

Cod

Small zooplankton

Cod eggs

Phytoplankton

Phytoplankton

& Bacteria

Nutrients

Fisheries economics and the ecosystem-based-approach - Experiences

Remember!


Management plans in natura 2000 sites

FAME Workshop Background

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Natura 2000 sites in German waters need management plans in a few years

  • Debate started what and how to manage

  • Lack of data on many ecological conse-quences of fishing

    • Bird bycatch

    • Marine Mammal bycatch

    • Exact fishing grounds of fishing with trawls

    • Etc.


Fishing effort and bird densities
Fishing effort and bird densities Background

Clangula hyemalis density and gill nets

Source: Döring et al. 2005


Trawling in sensitive habitats Background

Sensitive habitats at Kriegers Flak

Sand and gravel

areas

Trawling tracks

Source: Döring et al. 2005


Fishing effort by German Background

vessels in the ICES rectangles

38G3

Trawling in sensitive habitats

Source: Döring et al. 2005


Management plans in natura 2000 sites1

FAME Workshop Background

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Suggestion: Few negative impacts of trawling in 38 G3 and Kriegers Flak but

    some change in fishing practice seems necessary to reach the goals

    => Opportunity Costs!

    Example: Cod fishery again – fishing methods and costs



Fishing methods longlines vs trawls
Fishing methods – Longlines vs. Trawls Background

*Estimation of costs compared to allowed landings (row 1 and 2: recovery phase, row

3 + 4: after recovery, stock above Bpa


FAME Workshop Background

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Management plans in Natura 2000 sites

  • Problem: Some change in fishing practice seems necessary to reach the goals

    • > Opportunity Costs!

  • Solutions:

    • 1. Calculation of these opportunity costs (research planned with commercial fishing vessels)

    • 2. If Opportunity Costs are severe payments for fishermen who avoid external effects (like agri-environmental schemes) – Impossible at the moment

    • 3. Certification possible? Selling of fish from these areas under a certain label.


Conclusions outlook

FAME Workshop Background

June 6-8

2007

550 Years

1456-2006

Ralf Döring, Ernst-Moritz-Arndt-University Greifswald

Conclusions/Outlook

  • Impact assessments are the first joint efforts in STECF – problems on both sites

  • Work ont joined environmental and economic goals (stock levels, less negative impacts, etc.) with an idea about the future of fishing fleets

  • Natura 2000 managment plans will be a field of joint advice

  • It takes some time to learn at least the basics of biology/ecology as economists and vice versa

  • More complex models may not be the solution!



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