GILDED AGE POLITICS
Download
1 / 87

GILDED AGE POLITICS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 144 Views
  • Uploaded on

GILDED AGE POLITICS. EUGENIA LANGAN MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA WITH THANKS TO SUSAN POJER AND TONY MILLER. ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: TODAY: WHAT FACTORS (CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES) SHAPED GUILDED AGE POLITICS?

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' GILDED AGE POLITICS' - edolie


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

GILDED AGE POLITICS

EUGENIA LANGAN

MATER ACADEMY CHARTER HIGH SCHOOL

HIALEAH GARDENS, FLORIDA

WITH THANKS TO SUSAN POJER AND TONY MILLER


ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS:

TODAY:

WHAT FACTORS (CHANGES AND CONTINUITIES) SHAPED GUILDED AGE POLITICS?

WHAT FACTORS GAVE RISE TO THE POPULIST PARTY AND WHAT WAS ITS EFFECT?

BROAD:

HOW DID THE U.S. BECOME A SUPERPOWER?

WHEN AND HOW DO POPULIST MOVEMENTS ARISE AND HOW HAVE THEY SHAPED U.S. POLITICS?


The gilded age 1869 1900
THE GILDED AGE – 1869 - 1900

"What is the chief end of man?--to get rich. In what way?--dishonestly if we can; honestly if we must."

-- Mark Twain-1871

"Gilded - covered in a thin layer of gold. Often hiding something unattractive underneath."

THE GILDED AGE IS A TIME OF EXTREME WEALTH – AND EXTREME POVERTY


REAL GDP AND GDP PER CAPITA SOARED – PERIOD OF GREATEST GROWTH IN U.S. HISTORY

BUT THE TOP 1/8 WEALTHIEST HELD 7/8 OF TOTAL NATION WEALTH – HUGE RICH-POOR GAP (LIKE TODAY!)


A DIFFERENT MEASURE: % 0F NATIONAL WEALTH HELD BY TOP 1% WEALTHIEST INDIVIDUALS: NOTE THE TREND SINCE MID-1970s (EFFECT OF BUSH TAX CUTS AND RECESSION/BAILOUTS – TODAY TOP 10% HOLD 75%, TOP 1% HOLD 40.4%)


GILDED AGE "BILLIONAIRES" TO KNOW: WEALTHIEST INDIVIDUALS: NOTE THE TREND SINCE MID-1970s (EFFECT OF BUSH TAX CUTS AND RECESSION/BAILOUTS – TODAY TOP 10% HOLD 75%, TOP 1% HOLD 40.4%)

J. PIERPONT MORGAN: BANKING

JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, STANDARD OIL

ANDREW CARNEGIE, CARNEGIE STEEL


1876 – 1892: "THE POLITICS OF EQUILIBRIUM" WEALTHIEST INDIVIDUALS: NOTE THE TREND SINCE MID-1970s (EFFECT OF BUSH TAX CUTS AND RECESSION/BAILOUTS – TODAY TOP 10% HOLD 75%, TOP 1% HOLD 40.4%)


  • REALLY A TWO-PARTY STALEMATE WEALTHIEST INDIVIDUALS: NOTE THE TREND SINCE MID-1970s (EFFECT OF BUSH TAX CUTS AND RECESSION/BAILOUTS – TODAY TOP 10% HOLD 75%, TOP 1% HOLD 40.4%)

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS DEPENDED LARGELY ON SWING STATES, ESPECIALLY NY, NJ, CONN. & IND. (SWUNG BASED ON DEMOGRAPHICS AND FRAUD)

NEITHER PARTY TOTALLY CONTROLLED CONGRESS


Gilded age presidents
GILDED AGE PRESIDENTS WEALTHIEST INDIVIDUALS: NOTE THE TREND SINCE MID-1970s (EFFECT OF BUSH TAX CUTS AND RECESSION/BAILOUTS – TODAY TOP 10% HOLD 75%, TOP 1% HOLD 40.4%)

  • Ulysses S. Grant (R): Two terms

  • Rutherford Hayes (R): One term

  • James A. Garfield (R): Five months (Assassinated)

  • Chester A. Arthur (R): One term

  • Grover Cleveland (D): One term (then)

  • Benjamin Harrison (R): One term

  • Grover Cleveland (D): One MORE Term

"The less a man knows the bigger the noise he makes and the higher the salary he commands." MARK TWAIN, FROM A CONNECTICUT YANKEE IN KING ARTHUR'S COURT


VOTER TURNOUT HIGH DURING GILDED AGE (NOTE THAT IT DECLINES – A TREND THAT WILL CONTINUE IN THE 20TH CENTURY).

BUT IT WAS A TIME OF INTENSE PARTY LOYALTY (USUALLY)

WHY?

WELL-DEFINED CLASS AND INTEREST BLOCS


  • Well-Defined – A TREND THAT WILL CONTINUE IN THE 20Voting Blocs – TINDERBOX BUT POLITICAL BALANCE KEPT THE LID ON UNTIL LATE '80s

DemocraticBloc

RepublicanBloc

Northern whites(pro-business)

African Americans

Northern Protestants

Old WASPs (supportfor anti-immigrant laws)

Most of the BOURGEIOSIE

White soutHErners(preservation ofwhite supremacy)

Catholics

Recent immigrants(esp. Jews)

LABOR

Most farmers


SOME OF THE BLOCS – CONFLICTS KEPT MOSTLY IN CHECK BY POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893


  • THE USUAL PROBLEM: CYCLE OF DEBT POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893 DESIRE FOR FREE SILVER OR GREENBACKS

  • MADE WORSE BECAUSE # OF FARM TRIPLED 1860 – 1900 & FARM MACHINERY INCREASED FARM PRODUCTION  OVERPRODUCTION OF FARM PRODUCTS 

  • SINKING PRICES  CYCLE OF DEBT WORSE, FORECLOSURES, INCREASED DESIRE FOR FREE SILVER

  • BY 1888, ¼ OF ALL FARMS WERE TENANT FARMS (MORE DEBT!)

  • FARMERS


  • OLIVER KELLEY, FOUNDER, PATRONS OF HUSBANDRY (AKA THE GRANGE)

  • GRANGE ORGANIZED FARM CO-OPERATIVES (COLLECTIVE BUYING AND SELLING)

  • MOSTLY FOUGHT RAILROADS  GRANGER LAWS IN MIDWEST (INVALIDATED IN WABASH CASE, BUT  INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT, 1877)


  • FARM ALLIANCES, BEGINNING 1877 – SEEDS OF POPULISM POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893

  • STARTED IN SOUTH (SOUTHERN ALLIANCE), SPREAD THROUGHOUT MIDWEST (NORTHERN ALLIANCE). THERE WAS ALSO A COLORED FARMER'S ALLIANCE.

  • MORE POLITICAL THAN GRANGE

  • ALLIED WITH LABOR

  • RADICAL – DECRIED "CAPITALISTS," THREATENED BOYCOTTS

  • CONTROLLED 8 STATE LEGISLATURES AND HAD 47 REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS IN 1890S


THE U.S. ENCOURAGED MASSIVE IMMIGRATION IN THE GILDED AGE – NEEDED FACTORY WORKER AND FARMERS TO SETTLE THE WEST


"NEW IMMIGRANTS" POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893

FROM EASTERN EUROPE (BOHEMIA, POLAND, SLAVS, LITHUANIA, ETC)

AND SOUTHERN EUROPE (ITALIANS, GREEKS)

FOR 1ST TIME – LOTS OF JEWS FROM EASTERN EUROPE


  • LABOR UNIONS POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893

  • RAILROAD CRAFT UNIONS MID 19TH C.

  • GENERAL UNIONS/ UNION FEDERATIONS:

  • KNIGHTS OF LABOR, 1869 (TERENCE POWDERLY) – ADVOCATED HARMONY AMONG EMPLOYERS, WORKERS, WOMEN, ETC. MAIN ISSUE = 8-HOUR DAY. LATER = ELEMENT OF POPULIST PARTY

  • AMERICAN FEDERATION OF LABOR, 1881 (SAMUEL GOMPERS) – CRAFT UNIONS (THOUGH GOMPERS FAVORED INDUSTRIAL UNIONS)

  • AMERICAN RAILWAY UNION, 1886 (EUGENE V. DEBS)

  • -- SOCIALIST


TERENCE POWDERLY AND SAMUEL GOMPERS POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893


  • FEDERAL/ STATE POLICY TOWARD UNIONS: ILLEGAL CONSPIRACIES POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893

  • 1876: STRIKE AGAINST BALTIMORE & OHIO R.R. OVER WAGE CUTS 

  • STARTED IN BALTIMORE, STRIKE AND RIOTING SPREAD TO BALTIMORE, PITTSBURG, ST. LOUIS, CHICAGO – MIGHT HAVE GONE NATIONAL

  • BUT HAYES SENT FEDERAL TROOPS TO BALTIMORE AND MARTINSBURG, W. VA. AS STRIKEBREAKERS

  • SET A PATTERN!


HARPER’S POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893ILLUSTRATION OF CONFRONTATION

BETWEEN FEDERAL TROOPS AND STRIKERS IN BALTIMORE

STRIKE BLAMED ON GERMAN AND BOHEMIAN IMMIGRANTS AND COMMUNISTS


  • BUT MOSTLY Very POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893Laissez-Faire Federal GovERNMENT – from 1870 TO 1890 government did little domestically

  • in Part due to political paralysis

  • in part due to social darwinism

  • main federal duties:

  • post office

  • military (indian WARS)

  • FOREIGN AFFAIRS (NOT MUCH GOING ON!)

  • COLLECT TARIFFS AND DUTIES

  • ADMINISTER CIVIL WAR VETS/ WIDOW/ ORPHAN PENSIONS

  • PROVIDE PATRONAGE JOBS!


  • The Presidency as a Symbolic Office POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893

  • PARTY BOSSES (LIKE CONKLING)

  • Ruled national party

  • with assistance and subject to

  • Local machine bosses (tammany

  • Hall, etc.)

  • presidents could not afford

  • To offend party leaders ($$$)

  • presidents just doled out federal jobs

  • (mostly sinecures)

  • Federal civilian workers

Senator Roscoe Conkling


  • 1880 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893

  • MAIN ISSUE WITHIN REPUBLICAN PARTY = CIVIL SERVICE REFORM:

  • STALWARTS (NO REFORM) V. HALF-BREEDS (MODERATE REFORM) – CONKLING V. JAMES G. BLAINE OF MAINE "THE PLUMED KNIGHT" OR "THE CONTINENTAL LIAR FROM MAINE"

  • NEAR DEADLOCK – AND NEITHER COULD WIN

  • BLAINE: RUMORS OF R.R. BRIBES

  • CONKLING: TOO NOTORIOUSLY CORRUPT


THE COMPROMISE REPUBLICAN TICKET POLTICAL “EQUILIBRIUM” UNTIL PANIC OF 1893

JAMES A. GARFIELD, CHESTER A. ARTHUR,

LESSER HALF-BREED LESSER STALWART

AND COLLECTOR AT

N.Y CUSTOMS HOUSE

(JACKSON, GRANT, HAYES SCANDALS)


DEMOCRATIC NOMINEES: WINFIELD SCOTT HANCOCK AND WILLIAM ENGLISH

HANCOCK WAS CAREER ARMY OFFICER AND UNION CIVIL WAR GENERAL, NICKNAMED "SUPERB HANCOCK" FOR HIS STRATEGIC SKILLS

NONETHELESS, REPUBLICANS WAVED THE BLOODY SHIRT


"THE DEMOCRATIC TROJAN HORSE: FOREWARNED, FOREARMED. THE DEFENDERS OF THE CITY WILL NOT BE MISLED BY A 'SUPERB' FIGUREHEAD."

HARPER'S LED THE MEDIA CRY AGAINST "SPOILS SYSTEM" AND MACHINE POLITICS -- SCOTT TOED THE HARPER'S LINE SO IT DIDN'T ATTACK HIM – JUST THE COMPANY HE KEPT


1880 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION DEFENDERS OF THE CITY WILL NOT BE MISLED BY A 'SUPERB' FIGUREHEAD."

CONGRESS REMAINED CLOSE TO 50/50


FLUNKED OUT OF U. MICH; JOINED ONEIDA COMMUNITY WHICH NICKNAMED HIM "CHARLES GITOUT". THOUGHT GARFIELD OWED HIM AMBASSADORSHIP

"I AM A STALWART, AND ARTHUR IS PRESIDENT NOW!"


CHESTER A. ARTHUR – FOX IN THE HENHOUSE? GUITEAU (FIRST "LONE NUT" ASSASSIN)

BUT HE SUPPORTED THE PENDLETON ACT (HAD TO) – ASSASSINATION OF GARFIELD  PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR

CIVIL SERVICE REFORM


  • PENDLETON CIVIL SERVICE REFORM ACT ("PENDLETON ACT) -1883 GUITEAU (FIRST "LONE NUT" ASSASSIN)

  • CIVIL SERVICE JOBS TO BE AWARDED BASED ON MERIT (NOT PATRONAGE)

  • MERIT DETERMINED BY CIVIL SERVICE EXAMS

  • CREATED U.S. CIVIL SERVICE COMMISSION

  • WEAKNESS: FEWER THAN 10% OF FEDERAL JOBS WERE CIVIL SERVICE – MOST POLITICAL APPOINTEES

  • DIDN'T SATISFY REFORMERS IN REPUBLICAN PARTY  CHET OUT AFTER ONE TERM (NOT NOMINATED!)


BUT OVER TIME, DUE TO PUBLIC SUPPORT FOR REFORM AND CHANGING POLITICS,

MORE AND MORE FEDERAL JOBS WERE CLASSIFIED AS CIVIL SERVICE:

1883: 14,000 OUT OF 117,000 GOV'T JOBS

1900: 100,000 OUT OF 200,000 GOV'T JOBS

OF COURSE PENDLETON ACT DID NOTHING ABOUT LOCAL MACHINE POLITICS, LIKE TAMMANY HALL!


TAMMANY HALL DOMINATED NEW YORK CITY AND OFTEN STATE POLITICS

UNTIL 1934

MUGWUMPS, INCLUDING TEDDY ROOSEVELT, FOUGHT AGAINST IT. HARPERS ALWAYS DID TOO.


1884 PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION POLITICS

Grover Cleveland James G. Blaine(DEMOCRAT) (REPUBLICAN)

FORMER MAYOR OF BUFFALO

AND GOVERNOR OF N.Y.


A DIRTY CAMPAIGN (AGAIN) POLITICS

CLEVELAND MIGHT HAVE HAD AN ILLEGITIMATE CHILD (HE WASN'T SURE – NO-ONE KNEW WHO THE FATHER WAS!]

"MA, MA, WHERE'S MY PA? GONE TO THE WHITE HOUSE, HA, HA, HA!


CARTOON DEPICTING BLAINE AS THE "TATOOED MAN" – MARKED BY ALL RUMORED SCANDALS. WHO'S THAT IN THE CENTER OF THE AUDIENCE?

THEODORE ROOSEVELT, N.Y. LEGISLATURE -- MUGWUMP


MUGWUMPS ALL RUMORED SCANDALS.

  • "MEN MAY COME AND MEN MAY GO, BUT THE WORK OF REFORM GOES ON FOREVER"

  • CLASSICAL LIBERALS (NOT LIKE TODAY'S "LIBERALS"):

  • SOCIAL DARWINIST (ANCESTORS OF PROGRESSIVES)

  • LAISSEZ-FAIRE

  • SAW POLITICAL CORRUPTION, PATRONAGE AS GOVERNMENT INTERVENTION, INTERFERENCE WITH "SURVIVAL OF FITTEST" (MERIT)


  • DR. SAMUEL BURCHARD, LED DELEGATION OF MINISTERS TO BLAINE IN NY, MADE THAT COMMENT REFERRING TO DEMOCRATS

  • BLAINE SLOW TO REPUDIATE  RUMORS OF ANTI-CATHOLICISM

  • BLAINE’S CATHOLIC PROBLEM: PROPOSAL OF BLAINE AMENDMENT BANNING STATE AID TO RELIGIOUS SCHOOLS (MOST STATES INCLUDING FLORIDA ADOPTED IT) WAS PERCEIVED AS ANTI-CATHOLIC

  • IRONIC – BLAINE’S MOTHER CATHOLIC & SISTER A NUN



  • GROVER CLEVELAND: "A PUBLIC OFFICE IS A PUBLIC TRUST" OF PARTY LOYALTY

  • SAME PRINCIPLES AS MUGWUMPS – REFORM AND LAISSEZ-FAIRE

  • OPPOSED FREE SILVER

  • OPPOSED TARIFF

  • OPPOSED GOVERNMENT HELPING BUSINESS OR POOR (VETOED OVER 200 PRIVATE ACTS OF CONGRESS GRANTING CIVIL WAR VET PENSIONS)

SO HE WAS UNPOPULAR WITH TAMMANY, SILVERITES, PROTECTIONISTS, VETS


GROVER CLEVELAND (D) BENJAMIN HARRISON (R)

INDIANA (GRANDSON OF WILLIAM HENRY HARRISON)


  • MAIN ISSUE IN 1888: TARIFFS, AGAIN! OF PARTY LOYALTY

  • HIGH TARIFFS SINCE CIVIL WAR YIELDED U.S. $100 MILLION SURPLUS BY 1885

  • INDUSTRY SUPPORTED CONTINUED HIGH TARIFF

  • CONSUMERS WANTED REDUCTION (HIGHER PRICES)

  • MUGWUMPS OPPOSED TARIFFS (LAISSEZ-FAIRE, SOCIAL DARWINISM

  • NO DIRTY CAMPAIGNING IN 1888!


GROVER CLEVELAND ON THE TARIFF: OF PARTY LOYALTY

“When we consider that the theory of our institutions guarantees to every citizen the full enjoyment of all the fruits of his industry and enterprise... it is plain that the exaction of more [TAXES] than [THE u.S. NEEDS] is indefensible extortion and a culpable betrayal of American fairness and justice."

SOUND FAMILIAR?

TODAY IT’S THE REPUBLICAN PARTY LINE!

“FILING OFF THE ROUGH EDGES” : IN FACT TARIFF OF 1888 DIDN’T PASS


ELECTION OF 1888 OF PARTY LOYALTY

CLEVELAND WON THE POPULAR VOTE BUT LOST THE ELECTORAL COLLEGE VOTE. REPUBLICAN MAJORITIES IN BOTH HOUSES (BUT NOT 2/3 OF SENATE)


“‘COMING OUT’ FOR HARRISON: PROTECTED MONOPOLIES -- ‘CHECK IN YOUR VOTES THERE, AND DON’T FORGET YOU’RE WORKING FOR ____ KANE.”


  • BILLION-DOLLAR CONGRESS (51 VOTER COERCION ST ): REPUBLICAN CONGRESS UNDER HARRISON SPENT LAVISHLY (PENSIONS, YELLOWSTONE, FUNDING "LAND GRANT" COLLEGES IN SOUTH, ETC.)


  • OTHER ACTS OF BILLION-DOLLAR CONGRESS: VOTER COERCION

  • SHERMAN ANTITRUST ACT, 1890. FIRST FEDERAL LAW AIMED AT PROHIBITING MONOPOLIES:

  • “Section 1: Every contract, combination in the form of TRUST or otherwise, or conspiracy, in restraint of trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, is declared to be illegal.

  • Section 2: Every person who shall monopolize, or attempt to monopolize, or combine or conspire with any other person or persons, to monopolize any part of the trade or commerce among the several States, or with foreign nations, shall be deemed guilty of a felony.”

  • WHAT GROUPS WAS THE SHERMAN ACT ENFORCED AGAINST IN GILDED ERA?

  • LABOR UNIONS


  • MC KINLEY TARIFF, 1890. RAISED TARIFF (AVERAGE 48.4 – BUT NOT ON IMPORTS FROM COUNTRIES THAT DID NOT IMPOSE TARIFFS ON U.S. EXPORTS -- EARLY FREE-TRADE AGREEMENT)

  • SHERMAN SILVER PURCHASE ACT, SAME DAY IN 1890 AS MC KINLEY TARIFF (TO GET FARMERS AND WESTERN SILVER INTERESTS TO SUPPORT TARIFF)

  • BACKGROUND – COINAGE ACT OF 1873 (“CRIME OF 1873”) = GOLD STANDARD

  • BLAND-ALLISON ACT, 1878, REQUIRED U.S. TREASURY TO BUY $2 – 4 MILLION OF SILVER MONTHLY, ISSUE SILVER DOLLARS (16:1 GOLD/ SILVER RATIO)


  • SHERMAN SILVER PURCHASE ACT REQUIRED U.S. TREASURY TO BUY ADDITIONAL 4.5 MILLION OZ. OF SILVER BOULLION PER MONTH

  • ALSO REQUIRED TREASURY TO FUND SILVER PURCHASES BY ISSUING BONDS REDEEMABLE IN EITHER GOLD OR SILVER 

  • DEPLETION OF TREASURY GOLD STOCKS (BECAUSE MOST INVESTORS REDEEMED BONDS FOR GOLD) ANOTHER ARGUMENT FOR GOLDBUGS!


  • PEOPLE'S PARTY (POPULIST PARTY) ESTABLISHED 1891 ADDITIONAL 4.5 MILLION OZ. OF SILVER BOULLION PER MONTH

  • GREW OUT OF 1899 MERGER OF NORTHERN, SOUTHERN AND COLORED FARMER ALLIANCES, AND THEIR ALLIANCE WITH POWDERLY AND THE KNIGHTS OF LABOR

  • STARTED IN SOUTH, TRIGGERED BY FALLING COTTON PRICES

  • SPREAD TO MIDWEST, DUE TO FALLING WHEAT PRICES (> 66% SINCE 1867)


FARM PRODUCT PRICE INDEX COMPARED WITH CPI, 1865 - 1910 ADDITIONAL 4.5 MILLION OZ. OF SILVER BOULLION PER MONTH


POPULIST CONVENTION. COLUMBUS, NEBRASKA 1891. ADDITIONAL 4.5 MILLION OZ. OF SILVER BOULLION PER MONTH


  • OCALA DEMANDS -- POPULIST PLATFORM ADOPTED BY CONVENTION IN OCALA, FL. 1890:

  • SUB-TREASURY: WHEN FARM PRICES LOW, FARMERS WOULD STORE PRODUCE IN GOVERNMENT WAREHOUSES; GOVERNMENT WOULD GIVE GREENBACK LOANS TO FARMERS TO TIDE THEM OVER; WHEN FARM PRICES ROSE, FARMERS WOULD SELL STORED PRODUCE AND PAY BACK LOANS

  • ABOLITION OF PRIVATE BANKS

  • GOVERNMENT REGULATION OR OWNERSHIP OF RAILROADS, TELEGRAPH AND TELEPHONE COMPANIES


  • LOW TARIFF IN OCALA, FL. 1890:

  • PROGRESSIVE INCOME TAX

  • POPULAR ELECTION OF U.S. SENATORS

  • POPULISM = "THE PEOPLE" V. ELITES

  • IN POPULIST PARTY, "THE PEOPLE" = FARMERS AND LABORERS (RECALL JACKSON'S "FARMERS AND MECHANICS!)



ALSO RUNNING IN 1892: POPULIST CANDIDATE JAMES P. WEAVER HARRISON AND REPUBLICANS UNPOPULAR (LOST SEATS IN CONGRESS IN 1890 MIDTERM ELECTION)

(GOT OVER 1 MILLION VOTES AND PARTY WON SEVERAL HOUSE SEATS FROM SOUTH AND MIDWEST)


  • POPULIST OMAHA PLATFORM, 1892: OCALA PLUS! HARRISON AND REPUBLICANS UNPOPULAR (LOST SEATS IN CONGRESS IN 1890 MIDTERM ELECTION)

  • SUBTREASURY (ALWAYS HEART OF POPULIST DEMANDS)

  • FREE SILVER

  • RESTRICTION OF IMMIGRATION

  • 8-HOUR INDUSTRIAL WORKDAY

  • ABOLISH PINKERTON DETECTIVE AGENCY (STRIKEBREAKERS)

  • ONE TERM ONLY FOR PRESIDENT

  • INITIATIVE AND REFEREDUM


POPULIST LEADER MARY B. LEASE: HARRISON AND REPUBLICANS UNPOPULAR (LOST SEATS IN CONGRESS IN 1890 MIDTERM ELECTION)

"FARMERS SHOULD RAISE LESS CORN AND MORE HELL!"

OTHER WOMEN IN POPULIST MOVEMENT INCLUDED FRANCES WILLARD AND WCTU


"PLATFORM OF LUNACY" HARRISON AND REPUBLICANS UNPOPULAR (LOST SEATS IN CONGRESS IN 1890 MIDTERM ELECTION)


CLEVELAND = FIRST AND SO FAR ONLY PRESIDENT TO SERVE NON-CONSECUTIVE TERMS. NOTE WEAVER CARRIED 5 STATES


  • UNLUCKY GROVER! LOST SUPPORT FAST! NON-CONSECUTIVE TERMS. NOTE WEAVER CARRIED 5 STATES

  • PANIC OF 1893 – WORST DEPRESSION UNTIL GREAT DEPRESSION – LASTED UNTIL 1899 (WITH ANOTHER PANIC IN 1896)

  • CAUSES: RAILROAD OVERBUILDING  RAILROAD BANKRUPTCIES  PANIC AND BANK RUNS  BANK FAILURES, SAVINGS LOST, CREDIT CRUNCH  BUSINESS FAILURES  STOCK MARKER CRASH AND UNEMPLOYMENT RATE 17-19%.

  • MORE FARM DISTRESS – FARM PRICES TUMBLE EVEN MORE

  • CLEVELAND'S RESPONSE: LAISSEZ-FAIRE, AND REPEAL SHERMAN SILVER PURCHASE ACT


ENTER J.P. MORGAN WITH $65 MILLION IN GOLD LOAN TO U.S. TREASURY – HE BAILED OUT THE U.S.!

OF COURSE, PEOPLE BLAMED CLEVELAND AND REPEAL OF SHERMAN SILVER PURCHASE ACT FOR THE DEPRESSION (AS IF THE PRESIDENT CAN CONTROL THE ECONOMY!)


REPUBLICANS AND CLEVELAND BLAMED SHERMAN GOLD), DOMESTIC HOLDERS OF U.S. BONDS DID THE SAME

SILVER PURCHASE ACT FOR DEPRESSION


JACOB COXEY AND HIS

"COMMONWEALTH OF CHRIST"

NEVER MADE IT TO D.C. BECAUSE CLEVELAND SENT ARMY TO STOP THEM


  • PULLMAN STRIKE, 1894 START MARCH ON WASHINGTON

  • HARD ECONOMIC TIMES  LABOR UNREST BECAUSE EMPLOYERS CUT WAGES AND MAKE LAYOFFS

  • PULLMAN PALACE CAR COMPANY OF CHICAGO (RAILROAD LOUNGE AND SLEEPER CARS) CUT PORTERS' WAGES  THEY STRUCK 

  • NATIONWIDE SYMPATHY STRIKE ON OTHER RAILROADS, LED BY AMERICAN RAILWAY UNION AND EUGENE V. DEBS



  • FEDERAL COURT ISSUED INJUNCTION AGAINST STRIKE (USUAL!) – STRIKES IGNORED 

  • DEBS IMPRISONED FOR CONTEMPT

  • PRESIDENT CLEVELAND SENT 12,000 FEDERAL TROOPS TO CHICAGO TO BREAK STRIKE

  • 37 STRIKERS KILLED, 57 WOUNDED

  • CLEVELAND TOTALLY LOST THE LABOR VOTE

  • DEBS READ KARL MARX IN PRISON, BECAME A SOCIALIST (RAN FOR PRESIDENT WHILE IN PRISON AND GOT OVER 100,000 VOTES!)


  • Populist voteincreased by40% in the bi-election year,1894.

  • DIVERTED VOTES FROM Democratic party!

  • Republicanswon control of the House.


GOLDBUG AND SILVERBUG PINS


William Jennings Bryan – STRIKES IGNORED (1860-1925): “THE PRAIRIE LION”

The “Great Commoner” ?


BRYAN, FIERY ORATOR – STRIKES IGNORED

DEMOCRATIC CONGRESSMAN

GOT DEMOCRATIC NOMINATION IN 1896 BY ADOPTING POPULIST PLATFORM

ESPECIALLY FREE SILVER AND PROHIBITION


BRYAN'S "CROSS OF GOLD SPEECH" AT 1896 DEMOCRATIC CONVENTION:

"YOU SHALL NOT PRESS DOWN UPON LABOR THIS CROWN OF THORNS. YOU SHALL NOT CRUCIFY MANKIND UPON A CROSS OF GOLD!"



BRYAN, THE FARMER’S FRIEND CONVENTION:

18,000 MILES OF WHISTLE-STOP CAMPAIGNING – ADVOCATING SILVER STANDARD 16:1


DEMOCRATIC PARTY TAKEN OVER BY RADICAL FARMERS CONVENTION:

DEMOCRATIC PARTY SPLIT, “BOURBON”. GOLDBUGS V. POPULISTS

Platform  FREE SILVER, tariff reductions; Income tax; stricter control of the trusts (espECIALLY RAILROADS) – PURE POPULISM!


HANNA RAISED $3.5 MILLION FOR CAMPAIGN  HEAVY ADVERTISING: BEGINNING OF MODERN CAMPAIGNS


REPUBLICAN PLATFORM = GOLD STANDARD, HIGH TARIFF, “PLURALISM” – SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE (LOL)

REALLY PRO-BUSINESS, IMPERIALIST


ALSO-RAN: “PLURALISM” – SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE (LOL)

JOSHUA LEVERETT, PROHIBITION PARTY


HEYDEY OF POPULISM – 1890 - 1900 “PLURALISM” – SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE (LOL)

VESTIGES PERSIST TODAY, FOR EXAMPLE IN MINNESOTA DEMOCRATIC PARTY IS “DEMOCRATIC FARMERS AND LABORERS PARTY”


  • WHY POPULISM DECLINED: “PLURALISM” – SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE (LOL)

  • NOT ABLE TO BREAK THROUGH PRE-EXISTING PARTY LOYALTIES

  • PROGRESSIVE DEMOCRATS ADOPTED THE POLITICALLY PALATABLE PARTS OF THEIR AGENDA

  • ECONOMY IMPROVED!

  • ERA OF SMALL, INDEPENDENT FARMERS WAS ENDING


  • LEGACIES OF POPULISM “PLURALISM” – SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE (LOL)

  • POPULIST RHETORIC IN ALMOST ALL NATIONAL POLITICAL CAMPAIGNS

  • FUTURE DEMOGOGUES WILL USE POPULIST MOVEMENTS

  • PROGRESSIVE INCOME TAX

  • DIRECT ELECTION OF SENATORS – 17TH AMENDMENT, 1913

  • PROHIBITION – 18TH AMENDMENT, 1919

  • POPULARITY OF BALLOT INITIATIVES AND REFERENDA IN WESTERN AND MID-WESTERN STATES


POPULISM LIVES! “PLURALISM” – SOMETHING FOR EVERYONE (LOL)

THE TEA PARTY TODAY


ad