A typical hardware standard
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A typical “hardware” standard. How do computers control the world?. Each joint is a motor that can be turned on and off with a switch. 7 switches to control a whole robot. A Computer “port”. Connects 1 byte of memory to outside world. A printer “Port”.

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A typical “hardware” standard

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A typical hardware standard

A typical “hardware” standard


How do computers control the world

How do computers control the world?


Each joint is a motor that can be turned on and off with a switch

Each joint is a motor that can be turned on and off with a switch


7 switches to control a whole robot

7 switches to control a whole robot


A computer port

A Computer “port”

  • Connects 1 byte of memory to outside world


A printer port

A printer “Port”

  • Computer connects an internal byte variable to the printer switches, and changes the values to tell the printer what to print


A typical hardware standard

Address

Data

Memory

r/w


A typical hardware standard

I/0 Memory

Data Memory

Program Memory

Fast Specialty Memory


A typical hardware standard

Memory mapped I/O

8-bit

Your Program

Driver

Port

A Decimal

Variable

A Binary

Value

A function

call


An example program

an example program

Private Sub Write_Port(value As Integer)

txtByteOut.Text = (value) 'decimal

Status = cbUSBDOut(DeviceNum, RELAY_PORT, value)

If value < 16 Then

txtHexOut.Text = "0" & (Hex(value))

Else

txtHexOut.Text = (Hex(value))

End If ' hex

txtBinary.Text = CBin(value) 'binary

End Sub


The overriding concern

the overriding concern

  • the computer power levels (+/- 5, +/- 12) are EXTREMELY sensitive to surges

  • industrial machinery regularly injects surges into its power lines (+24 vdc)

  • computer power (clean) MUST be kept separate from industrial power (dirty)

  • reference pt (ground) is connected between the two in ONE PLACE ONLY


Optical isolation

Optical Isolation


A typical hardware standard

motor, etc


A typical hardware standard

Computer

“dirty” Environment


Mechanical relay

Mechanical Relay


A typical hardware standard

Computer

Environment


A typical hardware standard

Digital Input


Buying parts

buying parts

http://www.sparkfun.com


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