The baroque era
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THE BAROQUE ERA. 1600-1750. Journal Entry #8 Given what you know about the Renaissance, what new innovations and styles you do THINK are coming up in the Baroque era? How will music progress from here?. Chris Pearson – Johann Sebastian Bach Nick Caban – Louis Armstrong

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The baroque era

THE BAROQUE ERA

1600-1750

Journal Entry #8

Given what you know about the Renaissance, what new innovations and styles you do THINK are coming up in the Baroque era? How will music progress from here?


Composer research paper assignments

Chris Pearson – Johann Sebastian Bach

Nick Caban – Louis Armstrong

Bilal Aziz – Ludwig van Beethoven

Claire Chandler – Frederic Chopin

Andrew Drake – Scott Joplin

Blake Noud – Andrew Lloyd Webber

Jacob Burns – Claude Debussy

Kalyn Moore – Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart

Dominique Flyte – Felix Mendelssohn

Julian Harvey – Carl Orff

Emma Brown – Sergei Rachmaninoff

Kieryn Beyerl – Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky

Phil Kosydor – Franz Schubert

Aaron Brunnworth – Antonio Vivaldi

Taimoor Aziz – Henry Purcell

Alec Camp – Richard Wagner

Sami Greytak – Leonard Bernstein

Nate Novak – John Williams

Ryan Kaminsky – Aaron Copland

Anna Stamer – Igor Stravinsky

Composer Research Paper Assignments


The baroque world

THE BAROQUE WORLD

  • History

    • 1607 – Jamestown founded

    • 1643-1715 – Louis XIV reigns in France

    • 1692 – Salem Witch Trials, Salem, MA

    • 1715-1774 – Louis XV reigns in France

  • Literature

    • 1600 – Hamlet (Shakespeare)

    • 1605 – Don Quixote (Cervantes)

    • 1611 – King James Bible

    • 1667 – Paradise Lost (Milton)

    • 1719 – Robinson Crusoe (Defoe)

    • 1726 – Gulliver’s Travels (Swift)


The baroque world cont

THE BAROQUE WORLD, cont…

  • Science

    • 1610 – Galileo confirms that Earth revolves around the sun

    • 1687 – Newton’s Principia Mathematica

    • New approach to science based on mathematics + experiment

    • Discovered mathematical laws governing bodies in motion

    • New inventions, improvements of medicine, mining, navigation, industry


The baroque world cont1

THE BAROQUE WORLD, cont…

  • Art

    • Effort to completely fill space

    • Emphasis on motion and drama

    • Potential of color, depth, contrasts of light and dark

    • Artists wanted to create totally structured worlds


The baroque world cont2

THE BAROQUE WORLD, cont…

  • Judith Slaying

    Holofernes (1612)

    • Artemisia Gentileshi


The baroque world cont3

THE BAROQUE WORLD, cont…

  • 1623 – Bernini:

    David Slaying

    Goliath


The baroque world cont4

THE BAROQUE WORLD, cont…

  • 1653 – Rembrandt:

    Aristotle with a

    Bust of Homer


The baroque world cont5

THE BAROQUE WORLD, cont…

  • “Age of Absolutism”

  • Aristocracy very rich, powerful, lived in luxury

    (Rest of population barely survived)

  • Splendid palaces, magnificent balls, events

  • Absolute power – Duke of Weimar and Bach


The baroque world cont6

THE BAROQUE WORLD, cont…

  • Religious institutions also shaped style

    • Churches used the emotional and theatrical style of the day to make worship more attractive/appealing

    • Competing views: Europe divided into Catholic and Protestant

      Catholic: France, Spain, Italy, Austrian Empire

      Protestant: England, Netherlands, Denmark, Sweden, Germany


Baroque style

BAROQUE STYLE

  • Baroque = “barroco” = irregularly shaped pearl, term of criticism

    • Highly decorated, elaborately ornamented

    • Emphasis on motion and drama


Major composers

MAJOR COMPOSERS

  • Two giants: George Frederic Handel and Johann Sebastian Bach

  • Bach’s death: 1750

  • Other important composers: Monteverdi, Purcell, Corelli, Vivaldi


General baroque music

GENERAL BAROQUE MUSIC

  • Divided into 3 phases

    • Early: 1600-1640

    • Middle: 1640-1680

    • Late: 1680-1750


General baroque music cont

GENERAL BAROQUE MUSIC, cont…

  • Music composed for texts conveying extreme emotion, text ruled music

  • Stress on drama and text led to opera – drama sung to orchestra accompaniment

    • Melodies imitated the rhythms/inflections of speech


General baroque music cont1

GENERAL BAROQUE MUSIC, cont…


General baroque music cont2

GENERAL BAROQUE MUSIC, cont…

  • Early Baroque: Homophonic over polyphonic texture

    • Words were clearer with one melody over chordal accompaniment

  • Dissonance and contrasts of sounds were used to depict extreme emotions

    • Contrasts of sound examples:

      • one solo singer against an entire chorus

      • Singers against instruments


General baroque music cont3

GENERAL BAROQUE MUSIC, cont…

  • Middle Baroque:

    • New style spread from Italy all over

    • Church modes officially gave way to major and minor scales

    • Instrumental music important

    • Violin family most popular


General baroque music cont4

GENERAL BAROQUE MUSIC, cont…

  • Late Baroque:

    • Most music heard today is from late Baroque

    • Dominant to tonic chords

    • Instrumental as important as vocal

    • Polyphonic texture returns


Baroque music shmrft

BAROQUE MUSIC (SHMRFT)

Sound

  • Unity of Mood

    • Usually expresses one basic mood throughout (but not in vocal music)

    • Emotional states represented – joy, grief, agitation, called affections

    • Specific rhythm/melodic patterns became associated with specific moods


Shmrft cont

(SHMRFT) cont…

Harmony

  • Chords increasingly important

  • Chords gave prominence to the bass, which is the foundation of a chord

  • Basso continuo – accompaniment made up of a bass part usually played by two instruments

    • a keyboard plus a low melodic instrument like cello or bassoon


The baroque era

Harmony, cont…

  • Basso continuo played in left hand, while right hand creates chords based on numbers written in the music, called figured bass

  • Example: pg. 129


Shmrft cont1

(SHMRFT) cont…

  • Filling in chords according to figured bass is called realization

  • Figured bass only specifies basic chords

  • Performer has great freedom

  • Also saved time for busy Baroque composers

  • Also saved paper, which was very expensive


Shmrft cont2

(SHMRFT) cont…

  • Figured bass is the shorthand system that leads to song lead sheets and jazz improvisation of today


Shmrft cont3

(SHMRFT) cont…

Rhythm

  • Patterns repeat throughout piece

    • Created forward momentum

    • Forward motion rarely interrupted

  • Beat emphasized more than Renaissance


Shmrft cont4

(SHMRFT) cont…

Melody

  • Repeated throughout piece, melodies heard again and again throughout

  • Character of the melody remains constant

  • Continuous expanding, unfolding, and unwinding of melody

    • Sequences used

    • Ornamentation

      • Hard to sing and remember


Listening for ornmentation

LISTENING FOR ORNMENTATION

  • Sonata da chiesa, Op. 5, No. 1

    • Arcangelo Corelli

    • Also listen for harpsichord


Shmrft cont5

(SHMRFT) cont…

Dynamics

  • Volume level stays constant for long time

  • Terraced dynamics – sudden shifts in dynamics

  • Organ, harpsichord, clavichord: narrow dynamic changes

    • Organ and harpsichord – incapable of gradual dynamic changes

    • Clavichord – very small piano-like instrument

      • Capable of gradual dynamic changes, but only within small range (ppp-mp)


Listening for terraced dynamics

LISTENING FOR TERRACED DYNAMICS

  • Hallelujah Chorus from Messiah

    • George Frederic Handel

    • Listen for trumpet and timpani


Shmrft cont6

(SHMRFT) cont…

Texture

  • Early Baroque: homophonic

  • Late Baroque: usually polyphonic

  • Soprano and Bass: most important

  • Imitation

  • Some vocal pieces may switch texture for change of mood


Shmrft cont7

SHMRFT, cont…

Texture, cont…

  • Music depicts specific meanings (word painting)

    • “heaven” – high, “hell” – low, “grief” – descending chromatic scale

  • Words emphasized by writing many rapid notes for a single syllable of text - mellismas

    • Technique also demonstrated singer’s virtuosity


Listening to mellismas

LISTENING TO MELLISMAS

  • Ev’ry Valley Shall Be Exalted from Messiah

    • George Frederic Handel


The baroque orchestra

THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA

  • 10-40 players

  • Based on instruments of violin family

  • Main parts

    • Basso continuo – harpsichord & cello or bass & bassoon

    • Upper strings – 1st and 2nd violins & violas


The baroque era

  • Use of woodwind, brass, percussion varied

  • Other instruments could be added – recorder, flute, oboe, trumpet, horns, trombone, timpani

  • Trumpet & timpani joined in for festive music


Listening for festive trumpet

LISTENING FOR FESTIVE TRUMPET

  • Gloria from Gloria in D Major

    • Antonio Vivaldi


The baroque era

  • Different than modern orchestra:

    • 4 groups of instruments

  • Trumpet was different, no valves

    • Difficult to play, associated with royalty

    • Trumpeters were the top of the orchestra ladder

    • Treated like military officers


Baroque forms

BAROQUE FORMS

  • movement – a piece that sounds fairly complete and independent but is part of a larger composition

    • each movement:

      • has its own themes

      • comes to a definite end

      • is separated from the next movement by a brief pause


The baroque era

  • 3-Part: ABA

  • 2-Part: AB

  • Through-composed

  • Always contrast between bodies of sound

  • Examples:

    • alteration between small and large groups of instruments

    • Voices and instruments


Vocabulary

VOCABULARY

  • Galileo

  • Newton

  • Baroque

  • Ornamentation

  • Opera

  • Affections

  • Basso continuo

  • Figured Bass

  • Realization

  • Terraced dynamics

  • Sequences

  • Clavichord

  • Orchestra


Group presentations

GROUP PRESENTATIONS

Isaac NewtonBaroque DanceFamous Baroque Operas

Alec CampDominique FlyteChris Pearson

Aaron BrunnworthClaire ChandlerNate Novak

Taimoor AzizEmma BrownRyan Kaminsky

Nick CabanJulian HarveyBlake Noud

GalileoBaroque Royal Courts

Bilal AzizPhil Kosydor

Jacob BurnsKalyn Moore

Kieryn BeyerlAndrew Drake

Anna StamerSami Greytak


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