Steven Lukes on Power: An Alternative Look at Power. Steven Lukes provides a different viewpoint of power and authority to Max Weber's three types of authority.Luke identifies three face of powerDecision MakingNon Decision MakingShaping DesiresLuke claims that Weber was only addressing the first face of power- decision making.
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1. Political Concepts of Power and Authority Alternative Perspectives
2. Steven Lukes on Power: An Alternative Look at Power Steven Lukes provides a different viewpoint of power and authority to Max Weber’s three types of authority.
Luke identifies three face of power
Non Decision Making
Luke claims that Weber was only addressing the first face of power- decision making
3. Decision Making The power to make and implement decisions
Non Decision Making
The power to set agendas and therefore limit what is being discussed – certain issues are stopped by the powerful never reaching the point where decisions are made.
4. How does non Decision Making Power Work? The powerful can ignore the demands of the weak by delay, avoidance, or mass bureaucracy, or inconclusive inquiries.
Issues are avoided that the powerful anticipate will cause opposition.
5. Shaping Desired (Ideological Power) The power to manipulate what people think they want- powerful groups can make people think they want or consent to something which is actually harmful to their interests.
E.g.. Nuclear proliferation based on the idea that if we have more they (our perceived enemies) will not attack.
Ideological power is exerted through ideological institutions such as political parties and religion.
6. Other Competing Models of Power Functionalists:
Functionalist writers use a consensus model of society.
The norms and values of society are generally agreed.
Value consensus ensures shared values and collective goals; consequently, the more a society is able to meet collective goals, the more power it has.
Thus, a variable-sum model of power is proposed. In the functionalist model, power is held by society as a whole. It is a social resource.
7. Marxists Marxists believe that particular groups for their own benefit, and at the expense of others - hold power in society a zero-sum model of power.
The dominant group uses power to further its own interests, which conflict with the rest of society.
In the Marxist model, power lies in the economic infrastructure, which is owned and controlled by a minority for its own interests. This minority constitutes a ruling class.
The acceptance of ruling class dominance is an aspect of false consciousness and ideological hegemony.
The inequalities that stem from the relation to the means of production extend into other areas of social life - this unequal relationship is reflected in the legal system, the medical system and education, for example.
8. The End