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PASSABILITY CRITERIA FOR UNPAVED ROADS ( The experience of an operational road engineer guided by research findings ) PRESENTATION BY MARTIN HMENSA DEPARTMENT OF FEEDER ROADS, GHANA. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION. Assumed degree of engineering of unpaved roads.
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

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Slide 1

PASSABILITY CRITERIA FOR UNPAVED ROADS(The experience of an operational road engineer guided by research findings)PRESENTATION BY MARTIN HMENSADEPARTMENT OF FEEDER ROADS, GHANA

Slide 2

OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

  • Assumed degree of engineering of unpaved roads.

  • Classification of materials as earth or gravel

  • HDM III Design criteria for earth roads

  • Effects of high wheel loads and high tyre pressures

  • Criteria to ensure wet weather, passability

  • U.S Corps of Engineers criteria for the thickness of gravel surface material

  • Economic analysis of alternative interventions to ensure passability

  • Recommendations

Slide 3

ASSUMED DEGREE OF ENGINEERING

  • Road formed with adequate camber and side drains

  • Bridges and culverts provided

  • Low-lying sections raised in waterlogged areas

  • Road is unpaved (no bituminous seal)

Slide 4

CLASSIFICATION OF MATERIALS AS EARTH or GRAVEL

Earth:

  • ≥ 30% of material passes the 75µm sieve.

    CBR ≤ 10% (?)

    Gravel:

  • <30% of material passes the 75µm sieve.

    CBR >10% (?)

    CBR > 35% (Ghanaian specification)

    Materials with 10% < CBR< 35% - Underestimated strength.

Slide 5

HDM III DESIGN CRITERIA FOR EARTH ROADS

  • Model developed by Greenstein and Livneh (1981) with data from Thailand and Ecuador

    C2 = 0.0138 (N 0.175 )(P 0.580 )(Q0.490 )

    where

    C2 = soaked CBR of roadbed soil, in percent

    N = the number of passages to failure

    P = equivalent single wheel load, KN

    Q = tyre inflation pressure, KPa

    Failure criterion : 75mm rut depth.

Slide 9

EFFECTS OF HIGH WHEEL LOADS AND HIGH TYRE PRESSURES

  • Shown in graphs

    Education of heavy truck drivers required:

    I. To check deterioration

    ii. To reduce road maintenance cost

    iii.To avoid blockage of roads

    32% reduction in tyre pressure of heavy trucks can increase the life of an earth road by 3 times.

Slide 10

MATERIAL SELECTION CRITERIA FOR WET WEATHER PASSABILITY

  • Based on empirical studies by Visser (1981)

    SFCBR ≥ 8.25 + 3.75 * log (ADT)

    where

    SFCBR = the soaked CBR at standard Proctor Laboratory compaction (600KJ/M3) in percent

    ADT = the average daily vehicular traffic in

    both directions, in vehicles per day

    Log is logarithm to base 10

Slide 11

US CORPS OF ENGINEERS DESIGN CRITERIA FOR THE THICKNESS OF SURFACE MATERIAL OF GRAVEL ROADS

  • Metricated model developed by Hammitt (1970) and later by Barber, Odom and Patrick is as follows:

    Log HG = 1.40 + 12.3 CI –0.466 C2– 0.142 NE 0.124 RDC – 0.5

  • Where HG = thickness of gravel surfacing, in mm;

  • C1 = soaked CBR of surfacing material, in percent,

  • C2 = soaked CBR of roadbed soil, in percent;

  • NE = design number of cumulative equivalent 40KN single wheel loads at 550kPa tyre pressure;

  • RDC = maximum allowable mean rut depth, in mm.

    Replace the co-efficient 12.3 by 0.856 P 0. 235Q0.285 where the wheel load P and the tyre pressure Q are significantly different.

Slide 13

ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF THE PASSABILITY OF UNPAVED ROADS

  • Minimise the use of cost-benefit analysis in developing countries.

    • Scarce reliable data

    • Existing communities require basic access

  • Use cost effective analysis.

  • Proposed cost effectiveness model for comparing activities and interventions.

  • Cost effectiveness, CE = (L * T)/C

    Where

    L = Length of road improved or maintained in km

    C = the cost of an activity in appropriate currency.

    T = Time period over which the road remains improved or satisfies a minimum specified criterion.

  • Slide 14

    RELATIVE COST OF ACTIVITIES

    Slide 15

    GRAVEL MATERIAL CHARACTERISTICS(GHANA SPECIFICATIONS)

    • Liquid Limit : ≤ 35%

    • Plasticity Index : 6 – 12%

    • Soaked CBR : ≥ 35%

    Slide 16

    GRAVEL GRADING SPECIFICATION (GHANA)

    Slide 17

    RECOMMENDATIONS

    • Assess the strength of in situ materials

    • Give priority to spot improvement of critical sections

    • Gravel sections that require strengthening only

    • For low volume roads, sections with

      20% <CBR< 40% do not require gravelling

    • Sections with CBR> 40% do not require regravelling except where corrugations are to be minimised.

    • Give priority to the repair of deficiencies that render roads impassable during wet seasons.


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