Knowledge Engineering. Second Term Fourth Year. Data, Information and Knowledge. Data: Data is unprocessed facts and figures without any added interpretation or analysis. Information: Data that has been interpreted so that it has meaning for the user. Knowledge:
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Second Term Fourth Year
Data is unprocessed facts and figures without any added interpretation or analysis.
Data that has been interpreted so that it has meaning for the user.
Knowledge is combination of information, experience and insight that may benefit the individual or the organization.
for a purpose
Definition: The art of bringing the principles and tools of AI research to solve complex problems using expert’s knowledge.
Sources of Knowledge
Example: If gasoline tank is empty car will not start
Assumption of (traditional) AI work is that:
For Propositional Expressions P, Q and R:
P(QR)) (PQ) (PR)
(i) Show that (PQ) (PQ)
(ii) Show that (PQ) (PQ)
Examples: Ali lives in Karachi Ali lives in Pakistan, A man is mortal, a lion is an animal.
Example: I study in MUET I am not student of MUET.
A contradictory expression is clearly not satisfiable so is described as being UNSATISFIABLE.
Show that the following formula is valid:
Since formula is true for all possible combinations of truth values, the formula is valid.
For each of the following sentences, decide whether it is valid, satisfiable, unsatisfiable or neither.
(c)(Smoke Fire)(Smoke Fire)
(d)Smoke Fire Fire
(e)((Smoke heat)Fire) ((SmokeFire)(HeatFire)
(f)(Smoke Fire)((Smoke heat)Fire)
H.W.: show the validity of (d), (e) and (f) using truth tables.
(i) Modus Ponens or Implication Elimination:
If A is true and A=> B is true, then conclude B is true.
(ii) And Elimination: (From a conjuction, you can infer any of the conjuctants.
(iii) And Induction:(From a list of sentences, you can infer their conjuction)
(iv) Or-Induction:(From a sentence, you can infer its disjuction with anything else at all).
(v) Double-Negation Elimination: (From a doubly negated sentence, you can infer a positive sentence.)
(vi) Unit Resolution: (From a disjunction, if one of the disjuncts is false, then you can infer the other one is true.
In Propositional logic, we may write the entire sentence:
P = “It rained on Tuesday”
In Predicate Calculus, we may create a predicate weather that describes a relationship between a date/day and weather:
weather (Tuesday, rain)
Through inference rules, we can manipulate predicate calculus expressions, accessing their individual components and inferring new sentences.
Example: we could state that for all values of X, where X is a day of the week, the statement
is true; i.e. It rains everyday.