Challenges of Multiculturalism in Europe. Jagellonian University 9 May 2005 Laura Laubeova [email protected] Structure of the lecture. Definitions: multiculturalism, race ethnicity, minority, Concepts & theories of MC State policies vs. Minority requirements
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CERD, CRC, CEDAW, ICCPR, ICESCR, etc.
i.e. framework for public policies
promoting positive interethnic relations, elimination of discrimination and racism.
Failure of MCP?
Baubock (2005): 3 elements of MC
HR as trumps over majority preferences (Dworkin)
bilingual edu for immig. General integration not a minority right
equal membersip in polity, citizenship
(UK – racial equality, CERES)
From ethnic category to concepts of ethnic community.
a named human population with myths of common ancestry, shared historical memories,
one or more elements of common culture, a link with a homeland,
a sense of solidarity among at least some members.
- covers both majority and minority population.
situational (transcending) ethnicities,
focus on primordial ties ( but static naturalist, ethnic id. overlapping with other types of id.)
Sociobiologists - mechanisms of nepotism and inclusive fitness based on genetic reproductive capacity (reductionism)
Symbols for political goals, rational choices. Socially constructed nature of ethnicity.
But neglect wider cultural environment, affective and collective dimensions. Interests only in material terms.
Frederick Barth – social boundaries, ascribed ethnicity
4. Social psychological
Myths& symbols. nostalgia… AD Smith, Armstrong
(Hutchinson, Smith: Introduction)
Circumstantialists vs Primordialists
Mason:„race is a social relationship in which structural positions and social actions are ordered, justified, and explained by reference to systems of symbols and beliefs which emphasise the social and cultural relevance of biologically rooted characteristics“.
Rose, Steven, Lewontin, Richard, Kamin, Leon (1990) Not In Our Genes. Biology, ideology and human nature, London: Penguin Books
Stephen Gould (1996)The Mismeasure of Man
Ellis Cashmore (1996) Dictionary of race and thnic relations
“The European Union rejects theories which attempt to determine the existence of separate human races. The use of the term "racial origin" in this Directive does not imply an acceptance of such theories”.
Race is a social construct, i.e. a category without any biological underpinning
”group of people distinguished by physical or cultural characteristics
subject do different and unequal treatment by the society in which they live
and who regard themselves as victims of collective discrimination“
1945 Louis Wirth
(Capotorti as quoted from MRG)
but procedural liberalism vs communitarian liber. – Kis, Taylor, Kymlicka (see also politics of recognition)
(see S. May, P. McLaren, etc)
V. Parrillo: three models of minority integration:
Multiculturalism = diversity + cooperation
Eva Sobotka: policies twds the Roma in CEE:
1. Indigenous (Nunavat, Sami)
National minorities (Can., Eur.) Autonomy
2. Legal immigrants, gastarbeiters,
refugees Fair terms of integration
Irregular & illegal immigrants (denizens/metics)
3. AfroAmericans Inclusion
4. Roma Positive action
5. Ch. Jews, Amish, etc Difficult case
stages: communitarian, liberal, nation building
slavery, polygamy, polyandry, incest, euthanasia, suicide, capital punishment, abortion, coerced marriages, divorce on demand, gay and lesbian marriages, etc.
Two main ideas:
Integration, inclusion, inclusive education
Intercultural vs multiculrural
Politics of redistribution,
of recognition (Frazer) –
……… sexism, disableism, ageism, homophobia
Racism can be defined as an attitude (ideology) or action (behaviour) that disadvantages individuals or groups on the basis of their “racial” inferiority, mainly by means of limiting their access to scarce resources.1]Racial difference or racial inferiority is often perceived or constructed in terms of different culture, ethnicity, religion, language, etc.
1. Psychological”Some people are like that”
2. Lack of knowledge, ignorance „To know is to love“
3.Intergroup relations ”Birds of a feather”
4.Individuals are racists because the structures, practices, and values of our society are racist. ”Its the system”
two main meanings:
1) ideology (beliefs) about racial superiority
2) “the whole complex of factors which produce racial discrimination” and sometimes also “those which produce racial disadvantage”
1. the so called “scientific racism of the 19th century”, manifested for example in the publication by Herrnstein, Murray, 1995
2. “popular” racism or “common sense” racism that is based on ethnocentrism, a tendency to believe that one´s own cultural paradigm is universal, neutral and superior to any other culture
1. denies all difference in the name of universality of the human nature, but unconsciously it takes back this universality to the dominant model;
2. uses the obvious differences to turn them into instruments of domination, exploitation, condemnation, exclusion, or extermination.
assimilation is required
segregationAssimilation and Racism(Bauböck)
Does the individual fit
into the System or ‘Institution’?
TOLERANCE AND HARMONY
Does the organisation of this ‘institution’
recognise Diversity ?
Social and Political Effects
Are people enabled in this‘institution’?
Do the structures allow for
achievement, growth and opportunities?
Green paper on Equality and non-discrimination in an enlarged European Union:
1999 – The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry:
Report of an Inquiry by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny,also at www.official-documents.co.uk/document/cm42/4262/4262.htm; mainly chapter 6, pp. 26-28
„Institutional Racism defined as:The collective failure of an organisation to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their colour, culture or ethnic origin. It can be seen or detected in processes, attitudes and behaviour which amount to discrimination through unwitting prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotyping which disadvantages minority ethnic people.“