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The Unintended and Indirect Effects of Performance Measurement and Regulation on UK Productivity: A Multidisciplinary Overview PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Unintended and Indirect Effects of Performance Measurement and Regulation on UK Productivity: A Multidisciplinary Overview. Progress Report – Loughborough University Naomi Brookes. Presentation Structure. Research Objectives and Methodologies

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The Unintended and Indirect Effects of Performance Measurement and Regulation on UK Productivity: A Multidisciplinary Overview

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The Unintended and Indirect Effects of Performance Measurement and Regulation on UK Productivity: A Multidisciplinary Overview

Progress Report – Loughborough University

Naomi Brookes


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Presentation Structure

  • Research Objectives and Methodologies

  • Systematic Literature Review of Peer-Review Journals

  • ‘Grounded Theoretic’ Thematic Analysis of Trade Journal Article Abstracts

  • Desk-based research on policy initiatives

  • Thoughts on economic theories of regulation


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Research Objectives and Methodology

  • I - To identify extant bodies of academic research on regulation or legislation within the field of engineering, technology and operations management.

  • Systematic Literature Review of Peer-Review Journals

  • II - To explore the actuality of legislative and regulatory impact at a sector/business level

  • ‘Grounded Theoretic’ Thematic Analysis of Trade Journal Article Abstracts

  • III - To identify and delineate policy initiatives aimed at legislative and regulatory efficacy

  • Desk-based research on policy initiatives


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Problems of Terminology

  • What is an ‘unintended’ or ‘indirect’ effect?

    • dependant on the purpose of the original legislation

    • capture all effects

  • How does ‘UK Productivity’ decompose to specific sector and enterprise level MOPs?

    • leadtimes, product cost, rate of new product introduction(cost, duration of NPD), agility?

    • capture all

  • Capture whenever legislation/regulation does something to a specific sector or enterprise.


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    Presentation Structure

    • Research Objectives and Methodologies

    • Systematic Literature Review of Peer-Review Journals

    • ‘Grounded Theoretic’ Thematic Analysis of Trade Journal Article Abstracts

    • Desk-based research on policy initiatives

    • Thoughts on economic theories of regulation


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    Systematic Literature Review

    Search Terms

    • Chosen Journals:IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management; International Journal of Operations Management, International Journal of Production Research, Journal of Operations Management; Management Science; Omega; Research Technology Management ; Academy of Management Journal; Administrative Science Quarterly – All 3* RAE publications for TOM group at ABS.

    • Subject: Legislation, Regulation

    • Date Range: 1/1/2002 – current date

      Results

    • 5 articles

      => No extant body of research


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    Presentation Structure

    • Research Objectives and Methodologies

    • Systematic Literature Review of Peer-Review Journals

    • ‘Grounded Theoretic’ Thematic Analysis of Trade Journal Article Abstracts

    • Desk-based research on policy initiatives

    • Thoughts on economic theories of regulation


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    Grounded Theory Thematic Review

    For each publication:

    Identify a sample population of ‘trade’ magazines and journals

    Search within publication for ‘legislation OR regulation’ in defined time period

    Manually review abstracts to those that relate legislation/regulation to its effect

    Inductively categorise and analyse abstracts (c.f. grounded theoretic approach)

    Combine analysis with existing analyses to:

    - identify overall themes

    - identify potential case-study areas

    N.B. A ‘qualitative’ methodology


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    Journals Sample


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    (Very) Tentative Themes

    • Regulation/Legislation effects on Innovation

      • as a stimulator to innovation

      • as an inhibitor of innovation

      • regulation/legislation prompted by breakthrough product

  • Legislation/Regulation Geographic Differentials Effects

  • Inimical Effects of Regulation/Legislation

    • internal

    • supply chain

  • Effects of ‘Deregulation’

    • market growth and consumer saving

    • other effects

  • Effect of Antitrust/M&A Regulation/Legislation


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    Regulation/Legislation effects on Innovation

    • Regulation/Legislation as a stimulator to innovation

      • Noise regulation leads to innovative features of A300B –B4 (F31)

      • New fastener solution developed in response to end-of-life legislation(E55)

      • US senior’s Medicare legislation leads to innovative Pharma marketing solutions (e.g. Novartis’ Care Plan, Pfizer’s Share Card) (PL8)

      • Pedestrian Safety regulations leading to innovative automobile design ( AEL4, E12)

      • Global market for energy and environmental catalysts to grow to $13bn (E43)

      • GE announce environmental industries central to business strategy(E23)

      • Strengthening of India’s Patent laws leading to increase in proprietary drug market(PL4)

      • Lack of regulation inhibiting introduction of in-flight mobile telecoms technology(F32)

      • etc.


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    Effects on Innovation contd.

    • Legislation/Regulation as an Inhibitor to Innovation

      • Regulation in Pharma leading to long product development leadtimes (e.g. EU paediatric drug testing)(PR67, PL6)

      • Drug pricing regulations inhibit R&D activity (PL49)

      • end-of-life legislation prohibiting the use of plastics and composites in vehicle design ( E34, AEL8)

  • Legislation/Regulation prompted by breakthrough product

    • VLJ single pilot operation(F24)

    • Regulation required for UAV(F27,28,29,33)


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    Legislation/Regulation Geographic Differentials Effects

    • Development of ‘platform’ modular designs for automobiles (AEL11)

    • Disappearance of ‘blockbuster’ drugs and greater market segmentation ( PR5, PL59)

    • France’s difficulty in attracting aerospace FDI despite Airbus effect(F26)

    • Moving flight-crew to ‘flags-of-convenience’ FTL locations(F14,F15)

    • Alignment of differentials to increase market size by Latin American Aerospace authorities( harmonisation of Part 145 regulations) (F17)

    • EU regulation to include carriers in emissions trading considered trade barrier by US(F21)


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    Inimical effects of Legislation/Regulation

    • Internal

      • FDA Part11 regulations will cost $12M per company (PR9)

      • FDA Labelling regulations will cause labelling information requirements to double(PR28)

      • CARB safety regulations leading to more on-board diagnostic testing(AER2)

      • 54%companies face fines over carbon dioxide emissions(E51)

      • Regulations on passengers rights in the face of cancellations placing burdens on LCC(F12, F40, F43,F44,F46)

      • regulation throttling the UK (AER9, E 47)

      • EU regulation on departure/landing fees building in cost for small UK airports(F35)

    • Supply chain

      • REACH implications for fine chemical suppliers to Pharma(PR25)

      • Redundancies in non-recyclable automotive components industry(E46)

      • EU legislation on corporate governance will prevent the spread of best practice(E50)

      • Use of steel instead of zinc fuel tanks in automobiles(E19)


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    Effects of ‘Deregulation’

    • Market Growth & Consumer Savings

      • Introduction of Part 135 regulations allows commuter services in China(F1,F9)

      • deregulation of airlines in Taiwan(F45)

      • deregulation of air transport in Saudi Arabia (F5, F8)

      • passenger savings of 12bn euros pa on intra-European travel

      • removal of legislation will enable deep-sea mining( E57)

    • Other Effects

      • Increase in smaller and corporate jet markets (buying and leasing) (F1,F9)

      • leisure carriers moving to long-haul destinations because of competition from LCC ( F30)

      • effect of SES will be 200,000 new jobs and reduced carbon emissions (F6)

      • not enough pilots in Asia (in India and China in particular) (F10)

      • lack of aerospace safety infrastructure in China (F25)

      • relaxing emissions regulations helps employment in UK industry(E35)


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    Effects of Anti-Trust/’M&A’ legislation/regulation

    • Blocking of GE/Honeywell merger (F16)

    • Prevention of GSK operating pricing differential in EU

    • AstraZeneca fined 60M euros for abuse of patent legislation(PL65, PR36)


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    Potential Case-Studies

    • Cross-sectoral impact of REACH legislation

    • Impact on fasteners design and manufacturers in the light of ‘end-of-life’ regulations

    • Effect of legislation and regulation on automobile design


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    Presentation Structure

    • Research Objectives and Methodologies

    • Systematic Literature Review of Peer-Review Journals

    • ‘Grounded Theoretic’ Thematic Analysis of Trade Journal Article Abstracts

    • Desk-based research on policy initiatives

    • Thoughts on economic theories of regulation


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    Policy Initiatives

    • UK Government

      • Better Regulation Commission (www.brc.gov.uk)

      • Better Regulation Task Force

  • European Commission's Communication for ‘Better Regulation for Growth and Jobs in the European Union’

  • World Bank Report on ‘Doing Business in 2006: Creating Jobs’


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    Presentation Structure

    • Research Objectives and Methodologies

    • Systematic Literature Review of Peer-Review Journals

    • ‘Grounded Theoretic’ Thematic Analysis of Trade Journal Article Abstracts

    • Desk-based research on policy initiatives

    • Thoughts on economic theories of regulation


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    Regulations for Health and Safety c.f. Viscusi et al.

    • Discrete not Continuous Nature of Safety Improvements

    £

    CX

    BX

    AX

    • indirect effects measured by some

      form of opportunity cost?

    safety level

    100%


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    Porter and Linde(1995)

    • If well-designed environmental regulations can lead to improved competitiveness why can’t well-designed regulations and legislation per se improve competitiveness?


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