Managing change stress and innovation
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Managing Change, Stress, and Innovation. What Is Change?. Change Is an alteration of an organization’s environment, structure, technology, or people. A constant force An organizational reality An opportunity or a threat Change Agent

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Managing Change, Stress, and Innovation

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Managing change stress and innovation

Managing Change, Stress, and Innovation

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


What is change

What Is Change?

  • Change

    • Is an alteration of an organization’s environment, structure, technology, or people.

      • A constant force

      • An organizational reality

      • An opportunity or a threat

  • Change Agent

    • Is a person who initiates and assumes the responsibility for managing a change in an organization.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Forces for change

External Forces

Marketplace competition

Government laws and regulations

New technologies

Labor market shifts

Cycles in the economy

Social change

Internal Forces

Strategy modifications

New equipment

New processes

Workforce composition

Restructured jobs

Compensation and benefits

Labor surpluses and shortages

Employee attitudes

Forces For Change

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Two views of the change process

Two Views Of The Change Process

  • “Calm Waters” Metaphor

    • Describes traditional practices in and theories about organizations that likens the organization to a large ship making a predictable trip across a calm sea and experiencing an occasional storm.

  • “White-Water Rapids” Metaphor

    • Describes the organization as a small raft navigating a raging river.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Change in calm waters

Change in “Calm Waters”

  • Kurt Lewin’s Three-Step Process

    • Unfreezing

      • The driving forces, which direct behavior away from the status quo, can be increased.

      • The restraining forces, which hinder movement from the existing equilibrium, can be decreased.

      • The two approaches can be combined.

    • Implementation of change

    • Refreezing

      • Establishing a new equilibrium state.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Change in white water rapids

Change In “White-Water Rapids”

  • Change is constant in a dynamic environment.

  • The only certainty is continuing uncertainty.

  • Competitive advantages do not last.

  • Managers must quickly and properly react to unexpected events by:

    • Being alert to problems and opportunities.

    • Becoming change agents in stimulating, implementing and supporting change in the organization.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Implementing planned changes

Implementing Planned Changes

  • Organization Development (OD)

    • Is an activity (intervention) designed to facilitate planned, long-term organization-wide change.

      • Focuses on the attitudes and values of organizational members;

      • Is essentially an effort to change an organization’s culture.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Stress the aftermath of organizational change

Stress: The Aftermath Of Organizational Change

  • Stress

    • Occurs when individuals confront a situation related to their desires for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important.

      • Positive stress: when the situation offers an opportunity for one to gain something

      • Negative stress: when constraints or demands are placed on individuals

  • Stressor

    • Is a factor that causes stress.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Sources of stress

Sources of Stress

  • Constraints

    • Are barriers that keep us from doing what we desire.

    • Inhibit individuals in ways that take the control of a situation out of their hands

  • Demands

    • Cause persons to give up something they desire.

    • Can preoccupy your time and force you to shift priorities.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Organizational stressors role demands

Organizational Stressors: Role Demands

  • Role Conflicts

    • Are work expectations that are hard to satisfy.

  • Role Overload

    • Is the result of having more work to accomplish than time permits.

  • Role Ambiguity

    • Occurs when role expectations are not clearly understood.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Personal factors personality types

Type A Personality

People who have a chronic sense of urgency and an excessive competitive drive.

Type B Personality

People who are relaxed and easygoing and accept change easily.

Personal Factors: Personality Types

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Symptoms of stress

Psychological Symptoms

Increased tension

Anxiety

Boredom

Procrastination

Behavior-related Symptoms

Changes in eating habits

Increased smoking

Substance consumption

Rapid speech

Sleep disorders

Symptoms Of Stress

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Reducing stress

Reducing Stress

  • Person-Job Fit Concerns

    • Match employees to their jobs, clarify expectations, redesign jobs, and increase employee involvement and participation.

  • Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)

    • Help employees overcome personal and health-related problems.

  • Wellness Programs

    • Help employees prevent health problems.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Stimulating innovation

Stimulating Innovation

  • Creativity

    • Is the ability to combine ideas in a unique way or to make unusual connections.

  • Innovation

    • Is the process of taking a creative idea and turning it into a useful product, service, or method of operation.

      • Perception

      • Incubation

      • Inspiration

      • Innovation

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Structural variables affecting innovation

Structural Variables Affecting Innovation

  • Organic Structure

    • Positively influences innovation through less work specialization, fewer rules and decentralization.

  • Easy Availability of Plentiful Resources

    • Allow management to purchase innovations, bear the cost of instituting innovations, and absorb failures.

  • Frequent Interunit Communication

    • Helps to break down barriers to innovation by facilitating interaction across departmental lines.

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Characteristics of an innovative culture

Characteristics of an Innovative Culture

  • Acceptance of ambiguity

  • Tolerance of the impractical

  • Low external controls

  • Tolerance of risk

  • Tolerance of conflict

  • Focus on ends rather than on means

  • Open systems focus

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


Hr variables affecting innovation

HR Variables Affecting Innovation

  • HR Practices that Foster Innovation

    • Promoting of training and development so employee knowledge remains current

    • Offering employees high job security to reduce fear of making mistakes and taking risks

    • Encouraging employees to become champions of change

© 2008 Prentice Hall, Inc. All rights reserved.


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