Digital literacy computer basics class notes
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Digital Literacy Computer Basics/ Class Notes. E Q: What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review). Lesson 1: Introduction to Computers What Is A Computer?.

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Digital literacy computer basics class notes

Digital LiteracyComputer Basics/Class Notes

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks?(combined EQ for this review)


Lesson 1 introduction to computers what is a computer

Lesson 1: Introduction to ComputersWhat Is A Computer?

  • A computer is an electronic device that receives data, processes data, stores data, and produces a result(output).

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


What is a computer system

What Is AComputer System?

  • Hardware: the tangible, physical equipment that can be seen and touched such as:

    • Computer Case

    • Monitor

    • Keyboard and Mouse

    • Disk Drive

    • Speakers

  • Software: the intangible set of instructions that tells the computer what to do; know as programs or software programs.

    Two types:

    • Systems/Operating System

    • Applications

  • Data: information entered into the computer to be processed, which consists of the following:

    • Text, numbers, sounds, and images

  • People: the users of the computers who enter the data and use the output.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Parts of a computer input devices

Parts of a Computer: INPUT Devices

1.2

  • Input Device: hardware that allows you to communicate with your computer.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Parts of a computer output devices

Parts of a Computer: OUTPUT Devices

1.2

  • Output device: hardware that allows your computer to communicate with the user

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Cpu c entral p rocessing u nit

1.2

CPU: Central Processing Unit

The device that interprets and runs the commands that you give to a computer. It is the control unit of the computer.

Also known as the Processor

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


System components

1.2

System Components

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU): the microprocessor, the brains of the computer.

    • Housed on a tiny silicon chip

    • Chip contains millions of switches and pathways that help your computer make important decisions.

      • CPU knows which switches to turn on and which to turn off because it receives its instructions from computer programs (software).

    • CPU has two primary sections:

      • Arithmetic/logic unit

      • Control unit

  • Arithmetic/logic unit (ALU): performs arithmetic computations and logical operations; by combining these two operations the ALU can execute complex tasks.

    • Arithmetic operations include addition, subtractions, multiplication, and division.

    • Logical operations involve comparisons.

  • Control Unit: is the “boss” and coordinates all of the CPU’s activities.

    • Uses programming instructions, it controls the flow of information through the processor by controlling what happens inside the processor.

      • We communicate with the computer through programming languages.

        • COBOL, C++, or VisualBasic.net, HTML, Java Script for example.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


System components1

Memory: found on the motherboard; short term and long term.

Random Access Memory (RAM): memory on the motherboard that is short term; where data, information, and program instructions are stored temporarily on a RAM chip or a set of RAM chips.

When the computer is turned off or if there is loss of power, what ever is stored in RAM disappears.

This memory know as the main memory and is considered volatile.

The computer can read from and write to RAM.

Read-Only Memory (ROM): memory on the motherboard that is long term; where the specific instructions that are needed for the computer to operate are stored.

This memory is nonvolatile and your computer can only read from a ROM chip.

The instructions remain on the chip regardless if the power is turned on or off.

Most common is the BIOS ROM; where the computer uses instructions contained on this chip to boot or start the system when you turn on your computer.

1.2

System Components

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

INTEL: Introduction to Computers Lesson 4: How Computers Store Information


System components2

System Components

1.2

  • Motherboard: Main circuit board inside the computer where all components are attached.

  • Expansion Slots: an opening on the motherboard where a circuit board or expansion board can be inserted.

    Examples:

    • Additional Memory

    • Video Cards

    • Modem Cards

    • Sound Cards

    • Network Internet Card (NIC)

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

Motherboard

Microprocessor CPU

Power Box

Network Internet Card NIC

MemoryRAM

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

CD Drive

Hard DriveROM


Parts of a computer storage devices

1.2

Parts of a Computer: STORAGEDevices

  • Storage device: allows you to store or retrieve information

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

Serial and Parallel Ports

Power Source

PORTS . . . to connect!

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

USBsUniversal Serial Bus

Phone/Ethernet


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

EQ:What is theProcessing component of theIPOS Cycle?

Types of Processing

  • Part I.Systems Software:A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system.

    • Enables all components of the computer system to communicate.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

  • Part II.Applications Software: Programs that work with the OS software to help you use your computer to do specific types of work.


Systems software

Systems Software

Lesson 2/Operating System

A group of programs that coordinate and control the resources and operations of a computer system.

  • Operating System (OS): provide an interface between the user or application program and the computer hardware.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

PC- Intel ProcessorMac-Motorola Processor


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

Systems Software

GUI (graphical user interface):graphical symbols (icons) represent files, disks, programs, and other objects.

Windows

Windows

MAC

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

MAC

OS can run Parallel on MACs


Part 2 data communications

Part 2.Data Communications

  • The technology that enables computers to communicate

  • The transmission of text, numeric, voice or video data from one machine to another.

  • Popular examples:

    • Internet, electronic messages (e-mail), faxes, and electronic or online banking

  • Four components:

    • Sender: the computer that is sending the message.

    • Receiver: the computer receiving the message.

    • Channel: the media that carries or transports the message. (telephone wire, coaxial cable, microwave signal, or fiber optic)

    • Protocol: the rules that govern the orderly transfer of the data sent.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

LANLocal Area NetworkComputers connected close location-same building/same department

Channel

Sender

Receiver

Receiver

Channel

WANWide Area Networklocal area networks (LAN) are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

Sender

Sender-sends message

Channel-path message travel

Receiver-receives message

Protocol-An agreed-upon format for transmitting data between two devices. Example:Text . Images . Sound


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

Data Communications

  • Modem: allows you to use your computer to communicate with other computers.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

Receiver

Channel

Sender


Data communications

Network: when computers are connected to other computers

They can share information and sometimes hardware (printers)

Local Area Networks (LAN): computers connected together in a relatively close location such as in the same building or department.

The data and software for these computers are stored on a central computer called the file server.

Wide Area Networks (WAN): when local area networks are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world.

Data Communications

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

LANLocal Area NetworkComputers connected close location-same building/same department

Network:

When computer are connected to other computers that can share information and sometimes hardware (printers)

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

WANWide Area Networklocal area networks (LAN) are expanded to include several local area networks within a city, state, region, territory, country, continent, or the world.


Types of computers

Types of Computers

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


The space shuttle columbia supercomputer

The Space Shuttle Columbia Supercomputer

  • Supercomputers:most powerful

    • Used to do things like predict hurricanes and navigate satellites

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)

File:Columbia Supercomputer - NASA Advanced Supercomputing Facility.jpg, Retrieved on September 23, 2011, from Wikipedia.org


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

Mainframes and minicomputers:used by business, government and school systems to process large amounts of information.

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Personal computers

Desktop computer: designed to be used on a desktop.

Notebook/Tablet computer: designed to be used on a desktop but still small enough to be portable.

Laptop computer: designed to be small enough and light enough to be used on your lap.

Personal Computers

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Additional types of computers

PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants): a handheld device that is often used in conjunction with a desktop or other PC.

May have a special keyboard, some use

a pen or stylus for entering data

- Data can be transferred to a desktop or laptop computer

Web TV: provides easy access to the Internet without having to have a traditional computer.

Enables you to connect to the Internet and usually includes a keyboard or other device for entering and selecting data.

Additional Typesof Computers

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Role of memory

Role of Memory

  • A collection of electronic circuits, which can be on or off (open or closed).

  • -These two states of the circuit are represented by two digits, 0 and 1.

    • Called the Binary System

    • Combining bits (0 and 1), you can represent any character or number

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Digital literacy computer basics class notes

Bits to Bytes

1 bit is either a 1 or a 0 (on/off)

8 bits (combination of 1s and 0s) = 1 byte 01010100

1 byte 01010100 = 1 character T

BYTE SizeApprox. SizeExample of Storage Capacity

KB-Kilobyte 1,024 bytes1 email/1 document

MB-Megabyte 1-million bytes1 textbook

GB-Gigabyte 1-billion bytesHUGE storage/video storage

TB-Terabyte 1-trillion bytesGovernment/School Files

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Application software

Application Software

Software designed for specific tasks

.

  • Categories

    • Business

    • Communications

    • Graphics and Multimedia

    • Education and Reference

    • Entertainment and Leisure

    • Integrated Programs

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Business software

Business Software

  • Word Processing(WORD)

    • program that allows you to create, edit, and print text documents

      • Report, flyer, memo

  • Spreadsheet(EXCEL)

    • Numbered Rows and Lettered Columns

    • Intersection of them = cell

      • Grade book, financial info

  • Database(Access)

    • Lets you set up an electronic filing systems

    • Enter text and numbers

      • Find, search, and printer info in different ways

        • Address book, Card Catalog

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Applications software

Applications Software

  • Communications

    • Works with your modems or network hardware and allows your computer to communicate with other computers.

      • Exchange computer files and email . Internet

  • Graphics Software- uses pictures or images to help communicate messages.

  • Multimedia:

    - combinestext, graphics, animation, video, and audio.

  • Clip art:- graphical images to be added to documents

  • Desktop Publishing:- uses both pictures and words to give you the ability to create documents

    • Newsletters and brochures

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Applications software1

Applications Software

  • Education & Reference

    • Available on many topics

    • Help

    • Easier

    • Quicker

      • Examples: AR, Encyclopedia, etc.

  • Entertainment & Leisure

    • Fun

    • Games and simulations

    • Tests your skills

    • Interactive

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


Integrated software

Integrated Software

  • Combine several software applications into one program- “Bundle”.

    Include:

    • Business(WP . DB . SS)

    • Communications

    • Graphics and Multimedia

    • Education and Reference

    • Entertainment and Leisure

  • Examples:

    • MS OFFICE

    • Lotus SmartSuite

EQ:What are the parts and features of a computer functions and components of operating systems, programs, and networks? (combined EQ for this review)


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