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The way we are and our traits comes from our genes . Genes are on long chemicals called DNA . DNA is four chemicals . It is very long and very thin, about 1 billion times longer than it is wide . DNA is found in the nucleus of the cell . DNA is shaped like a double helix.

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The way we are and our traits comes from our genes. Genes are on long chemicals called DNA. DNA is four chemicals. It is very long and very thin, about 1 billion times longer than it is wide. DNA is found in the nucleus of the cell. DNA is shaped like a double helix.




Cells are always replicating (复制). Sometimes it is to make a baby. Sometimes it is just to make new cells inside your body.

Today we are talking about cells

replicating INSIDE your body.



The dna ladder is made of 4 different nitrogen bases a adenine g guanine c cytosine t thymine
The DNA ladder is made of 4 different nitrogen bases: DNA.A (adenine) G (guanine)C (cytosine)T (thymine)


They are nitrogen bases which means that the chemicals in dna are made mostly of nitrogen
They are nitrogen bases ( DNA.氮) which means that the chemicals in DNA are made mostly of nitrogen


A always joins with t
A always joins with T DNA.

C always joins with G

Play game…


There are three kinds of mutations
There are three kinds of mutations: DNA.

Deletion: (one pair of letters in gone)

Addition: (one more pair of letters comes)

Substitution: (one pair is changed for

a different one)





It is important to know most mutations are only in the dna they do not make traits or cancer
It is important to know…most mutations are only in the DNA, they do not make traits or cancer.


Cancer cells
Cancer cells: DNA, they do not make traits or cancer.

1. Do not work like regular cells.

2. They “steal” nutrients from other cells.

3. The nucleus is larger than other cells.


This is cancer the cells make a tumor
This is cancer. The cells make a tumor. DNA, they do not make traits or cancer.


Some scientists say that smoking only 15 cigarettes can change a persons DNA. If that is true, why don’t all people who smoke cigarettes have cancer?


Not all tumors are cancerous they don t hurt other cells or spread to other parts of the body
Not all tumors are cancerous. They don’t hurt other cells or spread to other parts of the body.

Benign



Sometimes, tumors can grow so big they hit blood vessels. the body.Then they send cancer cells to other parts of the body.

Metastasis


So how to cure cancer
So, how to cure cancer? the body.

Chemotherapy (化疗) gives a very

Powerful drug through

an intravenous drip (IV drip)

The drug kills cancer cells

but also kills regular cells.




How does the candy represent survival of the fittest1
How does the candy represent survival of the fittest? the body.

What is the candy’s environment?

What are the predators (大鳄)?

The candies’ environment is the classroom.

The predators are us.


How does the candy represent survival of the fittest2
How does the candy represent survival of the fittest? the body.

Which candies are the fittest?

The candies that are not delicious are

the fittest because they

survived the best.


Herbivores
Herbivores ( the body.食草动物)


Carnivores
Carnivores ( the body.食肉动物)


Xarxes island
Xarxes the body. Island


What are the most common places for tumors to grow
What are the most common places for tumors the body.to grow?

Who can guess the top 5?


5 bladder cancer
5. Bladder ( the body.膀胱) cancer


4 prostate cancer
4. Prostate ( the body.前列腺) cancer.


3 bowel cancer
3. Bowel ( the body.肠) cancer.


2 lung cancer
2. Lung cancer. the body.



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