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What is the grey dust? PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The way we are and our traits comes from our genes . Genes are on long chemicals called DNA . DNA is four chemicals . It is very long and very thin, about 1 billion times longer than it is wide . DNA is found in the nucleus of the cell . DNA is shaped like a double helix.

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What is the grey dust?

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What is the grey dust

The way we are and our traits comes from our genes. Genes are on long chemicals called DNA. DNA is four chemicals. It is very long and very thin, about 1 billion times longer than it is wide. DNA is found in the nucleus of the cell. DNA is shaped like a double helix.


What is the grey dust

What is the grey dust?


What is the grey dust


What is the grey dust

Cells are always replicating (复制). Sometimes it is to make a baby. Sometimes it is just to make new cells inside your body.

Today we are talking about cells

replicating INSIDE your body.


Gene mutations are changes in the order of the agct on the dna

Gene Mutations are changes in the order of the AGCT on the DNA.


The dna ladder is made of 4 different nitrogen bases a adenine g guanine c cytosine t thymine

The DNA ladder is made of 4 different nitrogen bases:A (adenine) G (guanine)C (cytosine)T (thymine)


They are nitrogen bases which means that the chemicals in dna are made mostly of nitrogen

They are nitrogen bases (氮) which means that the chemicals in DNA are made mostly of nitrogen


A always joins with t

A always joins with T

C always joins with G

Play game…


There are three kinds of mutations

There are three kinds of mutations:

Deletion: (one pair of letters in gone)

Addition: (one more pair of letters comes)

Substitution: (one pair is changed for

a different one)


Mutagens things that cause mutations

Mutagens - things that cause mutations.


Cigarette smoke radiation and x rays can cause mutations in dna

Cigarette smoke, radiation and X-rays can cause mutations in DNA.


Some mutations can cause cancer

Some mutations can cause cancer.


It is important to know most mutations are only in the dna they do not make traits or cancer

It is important to know…most mutations are only in the DNA, they do not make traits or cancer.


Cancer cells

Cancer cells:

1. Do not work like regular cells.

2. They “steal” nutrients from other cells.

3. The nucleus is larger than other cells.


This is cancer the cells make a tumor

This is cancer. The cells make a tumor.


What is the grey dust

Some scientists say that smoking only 15 cigarettes can change a persons DNA. If that is true, why don’t all people who smoke cigarettes have cancer?


Not all tumors are cancerous they don t hurt other cells or spread to other parts of the body

Not all tumors are cancerous. They don’t hurt other cells or spread to other parts of the body.

Benign


Tumors that are cancerous grow and spread to other parts of the body

Tumors that are cancerous grow and spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant


What is the grey dust

Sometimes, tumors can grow so big they hit blood vessels. Then they send cancer cells to other parts of the body.

Metastasis


So how to cure cancer

So, how to cure cancer?

Chemotherapy (化疗) gives a very

Powerful drug through

an intravenous drip (IV drip)

The drug kills cancer cells

but also kills regular cells.


Survival of the fittest candy edition

Survival of the Fittest (Candy Edition)


How does the candy represent survival of the fittest

How does the candy represent survival of the fittest?


How does the candy represent survival of the fittest1

How does the candy represent survival of the fittest?

What is the candy’s environment?

What are the predators (大鳄)?

The candies’ environment is the classroom.

The predators are us.


How does the candy represent survival of the fittest2

How does the candy represent survival of the fittest?

Which candies are the fittest?

The candies that are not delicious are

the fittest because they

survived the best.


Herbivores

Herbivores (食草动物)


Carnivores

Carnivores (食肉动物)


Xarxes island

Xarxes Island


What are the most common places for tumors to grow

What are the most common places for tumors to grow?

Who can guess the top 5?


5 bladder cancer

5. Bladder (膀胱) cancer


4 prostate cancer

4. Prostate (前列腺) cancer.


3 bowel cancer

3. Bowel (肠) cancer.


2 lung cancer

2. Lung cancer.


1 breast cancer

1. Breast cancer.


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