Disaster risk reduction climate adaptation
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www.climate-transitions.org www.i-s-e-t.org. Disaster Risk Reduction & Climate Adaptation. Quantifying the Benefits. Conceptual Starting Point. Adaptation is not “coping” – in well adapted systems people and the environmental and other features they value are “doing well”

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Disaster Risk Reduction & Climate Adaptation

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Disaster risk reduction climate adaptation

www.climate-transitions.org

www.i-s-e-t.org

Disaster Risk Reduction & Climate Adaptation

Quantifying the Benefits


Conceptual starting point

Conceptual Starting Point

  • Adaptation is not “coping” – in well adapted systems people and the environmental and other features they value are “doing well”

  • “Doing well” as variability and extreme events increase with climate change will require effective strategies for disaster risk reduction

    • Weather related events already account for 70% of disasters

    • Disasters are a major factor contributing to endemic poverty in many parts of the world.


The practical challenge

The Practical Challenge

The conceptual part is easy

Translating concepts to action isn’t

“Buzzwords” abound -- but what does DRR or “adaptation” mean?

Practical Methodologies are Essential


The risk to resilience project

The Risk to Resilience Project

  • Case Studies

    • Rawlpindi, Pakistan

    • Rohini River, U.P.

    • Bagmati, Nepal-Bihar

  • Collaboration

    • ISET

    • ISET-Nepal

    • IIASA

    • KCL

    • WII

    • GEAG

    • PIEDAR


The methodology

The Methodology

  • Shared Learning Dialogues (SLDs) to translate climate change projections into locally meaningful terms

  • Detailed vulnerability analyses

  • Identification of DRR options through SLDs

  • Qualitative identification of major cost and benefit areas through transects, SLDs, secondary data, etc…

  • Detailed survey of site characteristics, assets, etc…

  • Downscaling of Climate Change Scenarios

  • Hydrologic modeling to identify impacts

  • Backward and forward looking Cost-Benefit analysis


Shared learning process

Monitor, document

& reflect

Monitor, document

& reflect

Monitor, document

& reflect

Shared Learning Process

Adapted from Lewin 1946: “Action research and minority problems”

Local Experience

Scientific Knowledge

Shared Learning

Act

Learning

Shared

Learning

Act

Shared

Learning

Act

Time


Sample quantitative results

Sample Quantitative Results


Disaster risk reduction climate adaptation

Results of detailed CBAs indicate investment in risk reduction can generate high rates of return

True but overly simplistic

Not all approaches are resilient under changing climatic conditions

Not all approaches benefit everyone - particularly the poor


Not all drr is robust with different assumptions climate change

Not all DRR is robust with different assumptions & Climate Change

  • Differing levels of information on events required (probabilities)

  • Sensitivity to thresholds (embankments)

  • Potential for negative externalities


Not all all approaches benefit everyone

Not all All Approaches Benefit Everyone

  • Structural protection -- displaces impacts on those outside protective structures & can lead to behaviors that increase vulnerability

  • Insurance -- hard to get down to the poorest

  • Early warning -- can’t always reach key groups

  • Groundwater development -- particularly benefits middle farmers

Most approaches involve social tradeoffs


Qualitative cba transects

Qualitative CBA Transects

Transect 3: Settlements along Lal Bakaiya River

Transect 2: Settlements along Bagmati River

Transect 1: The Bairgania Bund


Transect 1 the bairgania ring bund

Transect 1: The Bairgania Ring Bund

(+, - - -)

(+ + +,- )

(+, - -)

(+ +, -)

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Transect 2 settlements along bagmati river

Transect 2: Settlements along Bagmati River

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(+ +,-)

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Transect 3 settlements along lal bakaiya river

Transect 3:Settlementsalong Lal Bakaiya River

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Robust approaches

Robust approaches

  • address the systemic factors creating vulnerability

  • respond to recurrent sources of variability

  • have low dependence on specific climate projections

Many such approaches are community based


Questionable drr approaches

Questionable DRR Approaches

  • Warning signals that DRR may not work include strategies that involve:

    • Dependence on specific event characteristics

    • Long lead times

    • High initial investments

    • Long-term institutional dependence

    • Large distributional consequences


Climate risk management requires

Climate Risk Management Requires

  • A mix of strategies

    • Distributed CBDRM as well as centralized

    • Systemic as well as targeted

    • Financial & institutional as well as infrastructure

    • Risk spreading as well as risk reduction

  • Approaches that are tailored to specific contexts and sources of vulnerability

  • Tangibility rather than generalizations


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