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1840 - 1860 . A Clustering of Innovation. Let the Clustering Begin!. 1841 Calotype (Talbot) 1842 Cyanotype (Herschel) 1840’s Albumen (Talbot, Niepce, Blanquart- Evard) 1851 Collodion (Archer) 1850’s Ambrotype (Archer, Fry) 1853 Tintype (Martin) 1856 Oxymel (Llewelyn).

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1840 1860

1840 - 1860

A Clustering of Innovation


Let the clustering begin
Let the Clustering Begin!

  • 1841 Calotype (Talbot)

  • 1842 Cyanotype (Herschel)

  • 1840’s Albumen (Talbot, Niepce, Blanquart- Evard)

  • 1851 Collodion (Archer)

  • 1850’s Ambrotype (Archer, Fry)

  • 1853 Tintype (Martin)

  • 1856 Oxymel (Llewelyn)


1841 calotype process
1841 - Calotype Process

  • Positive/Negative process introduced by Fox Talbot

  • Paper brushed with weak salt and silver nitrate solution

  • Competed with the Daguerreotype


Calotype vs daguerreotype
Calotype vs. Daguerreotype

  • Advantages

    • could make an unlimited number of prints

    • retouching could be done on negative or print

    • prints on paper were easier to examine, less delicate

    • had warmer tones

  • Disadvantages

    • arrested by patent restrictions

    • materials less sensitive to light, longer exposure time

    • imperfections of paper reduced quality

    • process had two stages positive/negative, took longer

    • prints tended to fade with time


1842 cyanotype
1842 - Cyanotype

  • Introduced by Sir John Herschel

  • Used iron salts instead of silver compounds

  • Highly stable

  • Brilliant blue images

  • Most popular around the turn of the century

  • Used for architectural blueprints


Late 1840 s albumen
Late 1840’s - Albumen

  • Introduced by Abel Niepce

  • Search to combine best of Daguerreotype and Calotype

  • Albumen (the white of an egg) used as a binder on glass

  • Fine detail, improved quality, but slow process time

  • Blanquart-Evrard took albumen and used it on paper

  • Process kept chemical “on the paper”, not in it which produced finer detail and glossy

  • Some critics of the glossy image


1851 collodion
1851 - Collodion

  • Introduced by Frederick Scott Archer

  • Used gun cotton as a binding agent

  • Used glass plates, very sharp images, better quality than Daguerreotype and Calotype

  • Difficult process and somewhat dangerous

  • Never patented, allowed further innovations to spawn from it


1850 s ambrotype
1850’s - Ambrotype

  • Introduced by Fred Scott Archer and Peter Fry

  • Inexpensive

  • No lateral reversal

  • Could be viewed from any angle


1853 tintype
1853 - Tintype

  • Introduced by Adolphe Alexandre Martin

  • Used enamelled tinplate instead of glass

  • One step process, no negative

  • Inexpensive

  • Robust


1856 oxymel
1856 - Oxymel

  • Introduced by J. D. Llewelyn

  • One of the first “Dry” processes to be used

  • Illustrated Evening News hailed it as a considerable advance

  • Negatives prepared in advance and later developed at leisure


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