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Organizational Effectiveness. Understanding Nonfiction By: Anne Houghland. Text Structures. Compare & Contrast Problem & Solution Cause & Effect Sequential/Chronological Order Main Idea & Supporting Detail. Compare & Contrast.

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Organizational effectiveness

Organizational Effectiveness

Understanding Nonfiction

By: Anne Houghland


Text structures
Text Structures

  • Compare & Contrast

  • Problem & Solution

  • Cause & Effect

  • Sequential/Chronological Order

  • Main Idea & Supporting Detail


Compare contrast
Compare & Contrast

Marzano's matrix can compare/contrast an infinite number of article.

Categories

Questions


Compare contrast1
Compare & Contrast

Signal Words & Phrases

Example

Yankee management started talking about replacing the old stadium more than a decade ago, and this seemed to be the tougher challenge: the stadium sparkled with the memories of 26 World Series championships. Architecturally, however, the stadium was charmless. Renovation in the 1970s may have made it more comfortable (fans loathed the painful wooden seats of the original version), but it also destroyed many architectural features. The original copper frieze that lined the stadium’s upper deck was ripped out. (A partial concrete replica was added later.) The monuments that had once stood in the deepest recesses of center field were moved to an insipid space behind the left-center field fence and named Monument Park. The little personality the stadium had came from its site: a tight urban lot framed by elevated subway tracks on one side and a city park on the other.

  • in comparison

  • by contrast

  • similarly

  • but

  • on the other hand

  • on the contrary

  • yet

  • however

  • despite

  • similarly

  • as opposed to


Problem solution
Problem & Solution

Who?

What?

Contributing factors

The Solution


Problem solution1
Problem & Solution

Signal Words & Phrases

Example

Dr. Bruce Farber, the head of infectious diseases at North Shore, says that hospitals are now willing to take extraordinary and expensive measures to prevent infection — but this attitude is new.  If he had proposed experimenting with video cameras a few years earlier, he said, he might have met with a lot of resistance.  But he found none.  “I don’t think there’s any pushback in terms of people thinking this is a real problem and we need to do things,” he said.  “The next crux is: what works and what doesn’t work?”

  • problem

  • solution

  • because

  • cause

  • since

  • as a result

  • in order to

  • so that


Cause and effect
Cause and Effect

Effect

Cause

Cause and Effect explains the chain of events. Note: In some cases, there can be many causes and only one effect.


Cause effect
Cause & Effect

Signal Words & Phrases

Example

Coming on the heels of an acorn glut, the dearth this year will probably have a cascade of effects on the forest ecosystem, culling the populations of squirrels, field mice and ground-nesting birds. And because the now-overgrown field mouse population will crash, legions of ticks — some infected with Lyme disease — will be aggressively pursuing new hosts, like humans.

  • for this reason

  • thus

  • since

  • in order to

  • as a result

  • therefore

  • consequently

  • because

  • due to

  • on account of


Sequential chronological order
Sequential/Chronological Order

  • Chronological Order – based on dates/times.

  • Sequential Order –

    vertically aligned.

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.

    First,

    Second,

    Third,

    Fourth,

1970

2010

1980

1990

2000

2020

2040

2030


Main idea supporting detail
Main Idea & Supporting Detail

Topic

2 - Major

Details

3 – minor

details


Text features
Text Features

  • Fonts and special effects

    ◊ Bold Face Type

    • Bullet Points

    ◊ Italics

    ◊ Initial Caps

    ◊ Underline

    ◊ALL CAPITAL LETTERS

    ◊ Larger Text Than the Rest

    ◊Quotation Marks

    ◊ Headings

    ◊ Sub-headings

    ◊ Boxed information


Text features1
Text Features

  • Illustrations and photographs

    ◊ illustration

    ◊ photograph

    ◊ graphics.

    ◊ diagrams

    ◊ cutaways

    ◊ cross sections

    ◊ overlays

    ◊ maps

    ◊ word bubbles

    ◊ tables

    ◊ charts

    ◊ graphs

    ◊ framed text

    ◊ caption

    ◊ label


Text features2
Text Features

  • Text Organizers

    ◊ index

    ◊ preface

    ◊ table of contents

    ◊ timeline or chronology

    ◊ glossary

    ◊ appendix


Works cited
Works Cited

  • Slide 4: OUROUSSOFF, NICOLAI . "Two New Baseball Palaces, One Stoic, One Scrappy." Television April 3, 2009: . New York TimesEbscoHost. Parkway School District. January 13, 2012 < http://http://www.nytimes.com/2009/04/03/arts/design/03stadia.html />

  • Slide 6: Rosenburg, Tina. "An Electronic Eye on Hospital Hand-Washing." Opinionator November 24, 2011: . New York TimesEbscoHost. Parkway School District. January 13, 2012 < http://http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/11/24/an-electronic-eye-on-hospital-hand-washing/ />.

  • Slide 8: King, Ritchie S. "After Lean Acorn Crop in Northeast, Even People May Feel the Effects." N.Y. Region December 2, 2011: . New York TimesEbscoHost. Parkway School District. January 13, 2012 < http://http://www.nytimes.com/2011/12/03/nyregion/boom-and-bust-in-acorns-will-affect-many-creatures-including-humans.html?_r=1 />.


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