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HOW DID THE USSR ESTABLISH CONTROL OVER EASTERN EUROPE?. Percentages Agreement 1944. Rumania: USSR 90%. The others 10% Greece: GBR 90%, USSR10% Yugoslavia& Hungary: 50%-50% Bulgaria: USSR75%, others 25%.

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Percentages agreement 1944
Percentages Agreement 1944

  • Rumania: USSR 90%. The others 10%

  • Greece: GBR 90%, USSR10%

  • Yugoslavia& Hungary: 50%-50%

  • Bulgaria: USSR75%, others 25%

‘Might it not be thought rather cynical if it seemed we had disposed of these issues, so fateful to millions of people, in such an offhand manner?”


Stalinisation
Stalinisation

  • Red Army occupies

  • Build up National Communist Parties

  • Coalitions with democratic, anti-fascist groups

  • Opposition parties intimidated – Socialist Unity Parties

  • Elections delayed until sure of victory


Expanding soviet influence
Expanding Soviet Influence

1946 – Communists win elections in Bulgaria, rig elections in Romania

1947 – Rigged elections in Poland, Communists win elections in Hungary,

Cominform set up, Zhdanov’s “Two Camps” speech

1948 – Communist coup in Czechoslovakia; Yugoslavia expelled from Cominform


  • 1949

  • Comeconcreated

  • Creation of NATO tocontain

  • Soviet Expansion

  • Purge of Albanian and Bulgarian Communist Parties

  • Soviet Union tests its

  • first atomic bomb

  • German Democratic Republic

  • (East Germany) created


The cominform
The Cominform

  • COMINFORM International communist information bureau established by Stalin in 1947; dissolved by Khrushchev in 1956.

  • Co-ordinated communist controlled governments in East Europe

  • New version of the Comintern (dissolved in 1943)


Andrei zhdanov
Andrei Zhdanov

  • After the war Zhdanov organized Cominform (Communist Information Bureau) and was instrumental in formulating an aggressive, anti-Western foreign policy.

  • Zhdanov also led the post-war purge of non-conformist artists and intellectuals in the Soviet Union. He demanded that Soviet writers adhere to the principle of Partiynost (party spirit). That is, that they follow closely the views laid down for them by the Communist Party. This also became known as Zhdanovschina


Report on the international situation to the Cominform

Andrei Zhdanov September 22, 1947

The fundamental changes caused by the war on the international scene and in the position of individual countries has entirely changed the political landscape of the world. A new alignment of political forces has arisen.

The more the war recedes into the past, the more distinct becomes two major trends in postwar international policy, corresponding to the division of the political forces operating on the international arena into two major camps: the imperialist and anti-democratic camp, on the one hand, and the anti-imperialist and democratic camp, on the other..


The cominform1
The Cominform

  • Eighteen of Stalin's top international incendiaries met in Poland in 1947 "to reorganize the general staff of the world revolution." The Cominform they created, even more than the old Comintern that Stalin had diplomatically dissolved in wartime 1943, failed to set the world on fire. Barely a year later, Tito's Yugoslavia split off from Stalin's world, and the furious tyrant turned the energy of the Cominform to attacking and destroying Tito. It failed at that, too.

  • April 30, 1956: Goodbye to the Cominform


Comecon
COMECON

  • Council for Mutual Economic Assistance

  • 1949

  • Its original members were the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, and Romania; other members joined later, including Albania (1949) and the German Democratic Republic (1950).



A cartoon from the evening standard britain march 1948
A cartoon from The Evening Standard (Britain) March 1948

  • What image of Stalin is the cartoonist portraying?

  • What are the Origins, Purpose, Values and Limitations of this document?


Ib questions paper 3
IB QUESTIONS: PAPER 3

  • Evaluate the impact of Stalin’s policies between 1941 and 1953 on the USSR, and on Europe.

  • -invasion of Russia by Hitler to death of Stalin. How Stalin’s policies in building up soviet industries and armaments and throwing all resources against Hitler without regard for human life, help defeat Hitler. He saved the USSR and helped save Europe from Nazi control.

  • -responsible for Soviet domination in Eastern Europe as a barrier and creating divisions in Europe. Causes of the Cold War

  • -domestic policies continue to cause USSR hardship, i.e purges


To What extent were Soviet policies responsible for the outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949? (N05)


Homework
HOMEWORK outbreak and development of the Cold War between 1945 and 1949?

Read pages 140-150 in Democracies and Dictatorships and answer the following questions:

  • BRIEFLY outline how Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Czechoslovakia and Yugoslavia became communist states.

  • What were the “5 D’s”?

  • Why did a crisis break out over Germany in 1948?

  • What was the impact of the Berlin Crisis on the Cold War?


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