Acids and bases
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Acids and Bases. (p. 256-261, 264-265). Acids. Taste sour. Acids. Ionize when dissolved in water (they dissociate into their ions; +, -). This allows the water to conduct electricity (which means they are electrolytes ). Ex- HCl is an acid…when placed in water, it becomes H+ and Cl -.

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Acids and Bases

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Acids and bases

Acids and Bases

(p. 256-261, 264-265)


Acids

Acids

  • Taste sour


Acids1

Acids

  • Ionize when dissolved in water (they dissociate into their ions; +, -).

    • This allows the water to conduct electricity (which means they are electrolytes).

    • Ex- HCl is an acid…when placed in water, it becomes H+ and Cl-


Acids2

Acids

  • Acids produce Hydrogen Cations

    • Therefore, the formula for an acid must have H in it (usually it will be at the beginning of the chemical formula only)

      • Ex. HCl, H2SO4


Acids3

Acids

  • The H+ will attach to H2O to form Hydronium ions (H3O+)

    • Acids produce H3O+ in water


Strong vs weak acids see table on p 258

Strong vs. Weak AcidsSee Table on p. 258

Strong Acid

  • Ionize completely

  • HNO3+ H2O  H3O+ + NO3-

  • strong electrolytes

    • (can conduct electricity well)

Weak Acid

  • Don’t ionize completely (don’t produce as many ions)

  • CH3COOH + H2O  H3O+ + CH3COO-

  • weak electrolytes


Bases

BASES

  • Taste Bitter and Soapy

  • Feel Slippery


Bases1

Bases

  • Some contain hydroxide ions, OH- , in their formulas, others don’t.

    • Those that don’t have OH in the formula will react with water to produce OH- ions.

  • All produce hydroxide ions, OH- , in water & conduct electricity (electrolytes).


Strong vs weak bases

Strong vs. Weak Bases

Strong Bases

  • Have OH and a metal atom in their formula

    • (ex-NaOH)

  • Dissociate in water to give: OH- & metal ion

  • ex. NaOH OH- + Na+

  • Strong electrolyte

Weak Bases

  • Don’t have OH in their formula

    • (ex-NH3)

  • ionize in water to produce OH- (water gives up an H), but doesn’t ionize completely

  • ex. NH3 + H2O  NH4++ OH-

  • Weak electrolyte


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