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Electrical Current

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Electrical Current

- Definition
- The rate at which charges pass a given point

- Units of measurement
- Amperes
- Shortened to Amps

- 2 Types of Current
- DC
- AKA: direct current
- Electrons always flow in the same direction.
- Batteries in a camera or a flashlight use DC

- AC
- AKA: alternating current
- The electrons can move in either direction
- Electrical outlets in your home use this.

- DC

- Definition
- The measure of how much work is needed to move a charge between 2 points.

- Units of measurement
- Volts (V)

- Relationship between voltage and current
- As long as there is voltage between 2 points on a wire, charges will flow in the wire.
- The greater the voltage:
- The greater the current.

- Different batteries have different voltages
- Car batteries need a bigger current to start the car so they have a higher voltage.

9 Volts

1.5 Volts

6 Volts

- Definition
- The opposition to the flow of electric charge
- Like “electrical friction”

- Units of Measurement
- Ohm’s
- Represented by the Greek letter omega ( )

- Variables which affect resistance
- Material
- Good conductors have a:
- Low resistance
- Like Copper

- Insulators have a:
- High resistance

- Good conductors have a:
- Temperature
- As you increase a metals temperature
- You increase resistance

- Superconductors
- Metals at very low temperature who’s resistance is virtually 0

- As you increase a metals temperature

- Material

- Definition:
- These change chemical or radiant energy into electrical energy

- Parts
- Electrolytes
- Mixture of chemicals which allow charges to flow

- Electrodes
- Made of conductors
- Points at which charges enter and leave the cell.

- Electrolytes
- 2 Types
- Dry Cell
- Electrolytes are solid or paste
- Normal batteries

- Wet Cell
- Electrolytes are liquid
- Car batteries

- Dry Cell

- Ohm’s Law
- Relates current, voltage, and resistance
- Voltage = Current X Resistance
- V = I X R

- Electrical Power
- Power = Voltage X Current
- P = V X I
- Measured in Watts