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NEUTRINO PHYSICS FROM COSMOLOGY. n e n m n t. n e. n m. n t. STEEN HANNESTAD, SDU HEP2003, 18 JULY 2003. NEUTRINOS, THE MICROWAVE BACKGROUND AND LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE. WMAP PROJECT, PUBLISHED RESULTS FEBRUARY 2003. 2dF SURVEY. 2dF Galaxy redshift survey 15 May 2002.

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NEUTRINO PHYSICS FROM

COSMOLOGY

ne nm

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ne

nm

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STEEN HANNESTAD, SDU

HEP2003, 18 JULY 2003


NEUTRINOS, THE MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

AND LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE




2dF Galaxy redshift survey

15 May 2002

Redshift

0.1 0.2 0.3

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5

Billion lightyears


DATA FROM THE LYMAN-ALPHA FOREST AT <z> = 2.72 PROVIDES

AN INDEPENDENT MEASUREMENT OF POWER ON SMALL SCALES,

BUT IN THE SEMI-LINEAR REGIME


EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONS FROM

NEUTRINO PHYSICS

NEUTRINO MASS HIERARCHY AND MIXING MATRIX

- solar & atmospheric neutrinos

- supernovae

ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

-cosmology: CMB and large scale structure

- supernovae

STERILE NEUTRINOS (LEPTOGENESIS)

- cosmology, supernovae

NUMBER OF RELIC NEUTRINOS /

RELATIVISTIC ENERGY

- cosmology


DECEMBER 2002: FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT OF KAMLAND RESULTS

Eguchi et al. Phys.Rev.Lett.90:021802,2003

Maltoni, Schwetz & Valle ’02 (hep-ph/0212129)


THE KAMLAND RESULT EXCLUDES THE REMAINING PART OF THE

LOW Dm2 PARAMETER SPACE

Maltoni, Schwetz & Valle ’02 (hep-ph/0212129)


STATUS OF ATMOSPHERIC NEUTRINO PROBLEM

Valle ’02 (hep-ph/0205216 )


If neutrino masses are hierarchical then oscillation experiments

do not give information on the absolute value of neutrino masses

Normal hierarchy

Inverted hierarchy

However, if neutrino masses are degenerate

no information can be gained from such experiments.

Experiments which rely on the kinematics of neutrino mass

are the most efficient for measuring m0


Tritium decay endpoint measurements have reached limits experiments

on the electron neutrino mass

Bonn et al. 2001 (Mainz experiment)

CHRISTINE KRAUS

NEXT TALK

This translates into a limit on the sum of the three mass

eigenstates


THE ABSOLUTE VALUES OF NEUTRINO MASSES experiments

FROM COSMOLOGY

NEUTRINOS AFFECT STRUCTURE FORMATION

BECAUSE THEY ARE A SOURCE OF DARK MATTER

HOWEVER, eV NEUTRINOS ARE DIFFERENT FROM CDM

BECAUSE THEY FREE STREAM

SCALES SMALLER THAN dFS DAMPED AWAY, LEADS TO

SUPPRESSION OF POWER ON SMALL SCALES

THIS ALLOWS FOR CONSTRAINTS ON mn


m experimentsn = 0 eV

mn = 1 eV

Ma ’96

mn = 7 eV

mn = 4 eV


COMBINED ANALYSIS OF CMB, 2DF AND LY-ALPHA DATA BY THE experiments

WMAP TEAM (astro-ph/0302209 )


WMAP+2dF alone experiments

above+Small scale CMB

Above+priors on h and Wm

  • A DETAILED GLOBAL ANALYSIS

  • SHOWS THAT

  • The upper mass limit from WMAP

  • and 2dF alone is weak.

  • b) The addition of small scale CMB

  • data breaks the degeneracy with

  • bias and tightens the limit

  • c) Adding priors on h and Wm further

  • strengthens the limit.

  • The WMAP bound of 0.7 eV depends

  • on normalization (bound on s8)

STH, JCAP 5, 004 (2003)


A GENERIC PROBLEM WITH USING COSMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS experiments

TO PROBE PARTICLE PHYSICS:

IN GENERAL, LIKELIHOOD ANALYSES ARE CARRIED OUT ON TOP

OF THE MINIMAL COSMOLOGICAL STANDARD MODEL

HOWEVER, THERE COULD BE MORE THAN ONE NON-STANDARD

EFFECT, SEVERELY BIASING THE PARAMETER ESTIMATE

A RUNNING SPECTRAL INDEX CAN LOOK LIKE

A NON-ZERO NEUTRINO MASS

A MODEL WITH BROKEN SCALE-INVARIANCE CAN

ALLOW FOR A HIGH NEUTRINO MASS

ANY DERIVED LIMIT SHOULD BE TREATED WITH SOME CARE


ALLEN, SCHMIDT & BRIDLE (ASTRO-PH/0306386): experiments

COMBINING CMB AND LSS WITH MEASUREMENTS OF THE

CLUSTER MASS FUNCTION SEEMS TO INDICATE A

NON-ZERO NEUTRINO MASS!!


HOWEVER, THIS RESULT RELIES SOLELY ON THE FACT experiments

THAT CLUSTER MASS FUNCTION ANALYSES FIND A LOWER

NORMALIZATION OF THE POWER SPECTRUM (s8) THAN

CMB AND LSS, I.E. CASE OF TWO INCONSISTENT DATA SETS

CMB AND LSS

COMBINED

X-RAY CLUSTERS

(ALLEN)

ALLEN, SCHMIDT & BRIDLE


USING A STRONG CONSTRAINT ON experimentss8 CAN BE VERY DANGEROUS

SINCE DIFFERENT ANALYSIS FIND VERY DIFFERENT VALUES

Wang et al. 2002

(Pre-WMAP)


EXPERIMENTAL QUESTIONS FROM experiments

NEUTRINO PHYSICS

NEUTRINO MASS HIERARCHY AND MIXING MATRIX

- solar & atmospheric neutrinos

- supernovae

ABSOLUTE NEUTRINO MASSES

- cosmology: CMB and large scale structure

- supernovae

STERILE NEUTRINOS (LEPTOGENESIS)

- cosmology, supernovae

NUMBER OF RELIC NEUTRINOS /

RELATIVISTIC ENERGY

-cosmology


ANALYSIS OF PRESENT DATA experiments

GIVES A LIMIT ONNn OF

NOTE THAT THIS MEANS A

POSITIVE DETECTION OF THE

COSMIC NEUTRINO BACK-

GROUND AT 3.5s!

STH, PRL 85, 4203 (2000)

Crotty et al. PRD 67, 123005 (2003)

Pierpaoli MNRAS 342, L63 (2003)

Barger et al., PLB 566, 8 (2003)

STH 2003 (JCAP 5, 004 (2003))

Because of the stringent bound from LEP on neutrinos lighter than

about 45 GeV

This bound is mainly of academic interest if all such light neutrinos

couple to Z. However, sterile neutrinos can also contribute to Nn


BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS experiments

THE WMAP+LSS LIMIT ON

THE BARYON DENSITY

CAN BE COMBARED TO THE

CONFIDENCE REGION FROM

OBSERVATIONS OF PRIMORDIAL

DEUTERIUM

THERE IS COMPLETE CONSIS-

TENCY WITH THE DEUTERIUM

VALUE! HOWEVER....

CYBURT, FIELDS & OLIVE,

astro-ph/0302431


THERE IS AN INCONSISTENCY AT ROUGHLY 2 experimentss WITH HELIUM

AND LITHIUM OBSERVATIONS

CYBURT, FIELDS & OLIVE,

astro-ph/0302431


Since experimentsthe helium production is very sensitive to Nn ,

helium measurements can constrain Nn

Nn = 4

Nn = 3

Nn = 2


A GLOBAL FIT INCLUDING experiments

ALL DATA YIELDS

  • INDICATING THAT

  • There seems to be a slight incon-

  • sistency between BBN and CMB,

  • meaning that either YP is higher

  • than usually believed, or Nn is

  • lower than 3.

  • There seem to be tight bounds on

  • the presence of sterile neutrinos

STH, JCAP 5, 004 (2003)

Barger et al., PLB 566, 8 (2003)



WMAP experiments

TAKEN AT FACE VALUE THE WMAP RESULT ON NEUTRINO MASS

SEEMS TO RULE OUT LSND BECAUSE NO ALLOWED REGIONS EXIST

FOR LOW Dm2. (Pierce & Murayama, hep-ph/0302131; Giunti hep-ph/0302173)


HOWEVER, A DETAILED ANALYSIS SHOWS THAT INCREASING experimentsNn

LEADS TO HIGHER VALUES OF H0. THIS CAN BE COMPENSATED

BY A HIGHER NEUTRINO MASS


A GLOBAL ANALYSIS OF THE NEUTRINO MASS BOUND SHOWS THAT experiments

IT DEPENDS STRONGLY ON THE ASSUMED VALUE OF Nn

Nn = 3

Nn = 4

Nn = 5

Nn = 3

FOR HIGH VALUES OF Nn THE

BEST FIT IS NO LONGER FOR

ZERO NEUTRINO MASS

STH, JCAP 5, 004 (2003)

THIS RESULT MEANS THAT LSND CANNOT YET BE EXCLUDED BY

COSMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS


A GLOBAL ANALYSIS STILL LEAVES THE TWO LOWEST LYING ISLANDS experiments

IN PARAMETER SPACE FOR LSND!

Maltoni, Schweitz, Tortola & Valle ’03 (hep-ph/0305312)


THE UPPER MASS LIMIT ON EACH INDIVIDUAL MASS EIGENSTATE experiments

IS ROUGHLY CONSTANT FOR ALL Nn

mn (eV)

Best fit s8

THIS CONCLUSION IS ALMOST UNCHANGED BY LIMITING BIAS


WHAT IS IN STORE FOR THE FUTURE? experiments

BETTER CMBR TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS

Satellites Balloons Interferometers

MAP (ongoing)Boomerang (ongoing)CBI (ongoing)

Planck (2007) TopHat (ongoing)DASI (ongoing)

CMBR POLARIZATION MEASUREMENTS

Satellites Balloons Ground

MAP (ongoing)Boomerang (2002-3)Polatron (ongoing)

Planck (2007) DASI

LARGE SCALE STRUCTURE SURVEYS

2dF (completed) 250.000 galaxies

SDSS (ongoing) 1.000.000 galaxies

COSMOLOGICAL SUPERNOVA SURVEYS

SNAP satellite (2006-7??)

WEAK LENSING SURVEYS


MEASURING experimentsmn USING CMB+LSS DATA

SDSS-BRG

SDSS-BRG

GUIDO DREXLIN'S

TALK ON KATRIN

SIGNIFICANTLY BETTER THAN KATRIN, BUT ALSO MUCH

LESS ROBUST


PROSPECTS FOR FUTURE DETERMINATION OF experimentsNn

Lopez et al. 1998

Data from Planck may allow for very accurate determination of Nn

Standard model prediction Nn =3.03-3.04 due to heating and finite temperature effect could perhaps be detected


CONCLUSIONS ON NEUTRINOS experiments

COSMOLOGY HAS BECOME AN INCREASINGLY

POWERFUL PROBE OF NEUTRINO PROPERTIES

THE LSND RESULT CANNOT BE RULED OUT YET BY

COSMOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS

IN THE COMING YEARS, TERRESTRIAL EXPERIMENTS ARE

LIKELY TO MEASURE SOME OF THE RELEVANT PARAMETERS

VERY PRECISELY, BUT COSMOLOGY WILL REMAIN AN

EXCELLENT AND COMPLEMENTARY LAB FOR NEUTRINO

PHYSICS


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