百年诺贝尔 之 2004 年诺贝尔奖. 生理学与医学奖. The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004 was awarded jointly to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system". The vivid world of odours. 在科学上长久以来，人类如何辨识数以千计的气味仍是一个谜团。
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The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004 was awarded jointly to Richard Axel and Linda B. Buck "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004 was awarded jointly to Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation".
Ubiquitin - a common polypeptide that represents the "kiss of death".
The cell's waste disposer, the proteasome. The black spots indicate active, protein-degrading surfaces.
Ubiquitylation tags invading bacterial pathogens by targeting bacterial proteins or associated host components. Adaptor proteins, such as p62, NDP52 and optineurin (OPTN), that bind to both ubiquitin and the ubiquitin-like protein LC3, link ubiquitin-tagged bacteria with the autophagic machinery. Antibacterial peptide precursors are targeted in a similar manner by p62 so that the antibacterial peptides are produced in the intracellular compartments that contain the bacteria.