Crimean war 1854 1856
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Crimean War, 1854-1856. A truly bizarre war Russia versus the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France British policy: Lord Palmerston Prevent Russian expansion in the Near East Use the Ottoman Empire to do it Stratford Canning, British ambassador in Constantinople. Map Europe.

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Crimean War, 1854-1856

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Crimean war 1854 1856

Crimean War, 1854-1856

  • A truly bizarre war

  • Russia versus the Ottoman Empire, Britain, and France

  • British policy: Lord Palmerston

    • Prevent Russian expansion in the Near East

    • Use the Ottoman Empire to do it

  • Stratford Canning, British ambassador in Constantinople


Map europe

Map Europe


Lord palmerston 1784 1865 and stratford canning 1786 1880

Lord Palmerston (1784-1865) and Stratford Canning (1786-1880)


French policy

French Policy

  • 1690 Ottomans granted the French Catholic Church the right to have jurisdiction over some holy places

  • By the 19th century the vast majority of pilgrims were Russian Orthodox

  • Russians got more and more concessions for Orthodox clergy


Steps toward war

Steps toward war

  • Louis Napoleon (elected president of France 1848, then Emperor Napoleon III in 1852)

  • Tsar Nicholas I

  • 1853 Russian demanded more concessions at the holy places

  • Canning advised the Turks to reject them

  • July 1853 Russians occupied Romania


Napoleon iii ruled as emperor 1852 1870 and nicholas i 1825 1855

Napoleon III (ruled as emperor 1852-1870) and Nicholas I (1825-1855)


Steps toward war1

Steps toward war

  • 1853 Conference in Vienna to work out a solution

  • October 3, 1853 Turkish ultimatum to Russia

  • November 30, 1853 Battle (?) of Sinope in the Black Sea

  • Napoleon III called on the British to “sweep the Russian flag from the Black Sea”

  • March 1854 Britain and France declared war on Russia


Battle of sinope

Battle of Sinope


Where do we fight

Where do we fight?

  • Baltic Sea?

  • Black Sea, particularly Romania

    • Summer 1854 Allied landings at Varna

    • June 3, 1854 Vienna issued an ultimatum to Russians to evacuate Romania

    • Russians not there anymore

    • Austrian army entered Romania


Map europe1

Map Europe


Map crimean war

Map Crimean War


How about fighting in the crimea

How about fighting in the Crimea?

  • If Sebastopol remained in Russian hands, London was doomed

  • September 14, 1854 Allies landed in the Crimea

  • September 1855 Sebastopol fell to the Allies


Peace negotiations in vienna

Peace Negotiations in Vienna

  • March 1, 1855 Nicholas died and Alexander II became Tsar

  • December 1855 Austrian ultimatum to the Russians

    • Free passage of Danube mouth and new agreement for the Straits

    • Protectorate of all Christians

    • Neutral Black Sea

    • Part of Bessarabia back to Turkey


Alexander ii ruled 1855 1881

Alexander II (ruled 1855-1881)


Treaty of paris march 30 1856

TREATY OF PARIS, MARCH 30, 1856

  • European (not Russian) guarantees for Christians in Ottoman Empire

  • Neutral passage of Straits, Black Sea, and Danube for all shipping

  • Danube placed under the control of an international commission (still exists)

  • Status of Moldavia and Walachia to be determined by an international conference

  • Ottoman Empire admitted to “Concert of Europe”


Crimean war 1854 1856

Map


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