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Economics for Leaders. Let’s Learn Some ECON. Don’t try to write down everything I say Lectures will be fast-paced with lots of information and lots of interaction Pay attention and get involved As the week ends, it will come together You can have all of these slides and materials.

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Let s learn some econ
Let’s Learn Some ECON

  • Don’t try to write down everything I say

  • Lectures will be fast-paced with lots of information and lots of interaction

  • Pay attention and get involved

  • As the week ends, it will come together

  • You can have all of these slides and materials


Shining students
Shining Students

  • Each morning I will award a prize to one or two students who shined the day before

  • If you want to win then you need to be alert, engaged and participate in a meaningful way

  • Let’s have some FUN!

  • Post-Test at the end of the week (80%)**


Joke of the day

Joke of the Day

Joke Of The Day

At the end of the day, always remember…


Joke of the day1

Joke of the Day

Joke Of The Day

You can tune a piano, but…


Joke of the day2

Joke of the Day

Joke Of The Day

You can’t TUNA FISH!


Joke of the day3

Joke of the Day

Joke Of The Day



Hypotheses for the week
Hypotheses for the Week

  • Human Prosperity and social cooperation develop spontaneously in societies that protect property rights and encourage voluntary trade/exchange.

  • Developing an economic way of thinking empowers people to understand and explain the world in which we live.


Why are some countries rich poor

Why are some countries rich and others poor?

Why are some countries rich/poor?



Why do we care
Why do we care?


Opinions matter and are of equal value at the ballot box. But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

Statements of opinion should initiate the quest for economic understanding, not end it.

Economic Reasoning Principle #5:

Understanding based on knowledge and

evidence imparts value to opinions.


The rules of the game institutions norms
The Rules of the Game But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based. Institutions & Norms

  • The rules of the game shape how decisions are made.

  • Decisions determine outcomes.

  • People respond to incentives in predictable ways.


Scarcity
Scarcity But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

  • Something is scarce if society cannot have all it wants at no cost.

  • By cost we mean OPPORTUNITY COST.

  • Some things are more scarce than others.

  • Relative scarcity is determined by what must be given up.


Choices
Choices But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

  • Because the world is characterized by scarcity, we are forced to make choices.

  • We must allocate scarce resources among competing uses.

  • Wood that is used for tables and chairs cannot be used for crutches (or forest).

  • Land that is kept undeveloped cannot be used to build housing for the poor.

  • Time


Eating candy
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Opportunity cost
Opportunity Cost But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

  • Because we are forced to make choices (scarcity), we are faced with costs.

  • The cost of any choice is what is given up.

  • Choosing is REFUSING!


Choosing Between Alternatives But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Eating candy1
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Do You Want to Trade? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Eating candy2
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Do You Want to Trade? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Economic Reasoning Principle #1: But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based. People choose, and individual choices are the source of social outcomes.

  • Scarcity necessitates choices: not all of our desires can be satisfied. People make these choices based on their perceptions of the expected costs and benefits of the alternatives.


Economic Reasoning Principle # 2: But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based. Choices impose costs; people receive benefits and incur costs when they make decisions.

  • The cost of a choice is the value of the next-best alternative foregone, measurable in time or money or some alternative activity given up.

  • What did you give up to be here?


Eating candy3
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


  • choices → But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based. TRADE-OFFS → forgone alternatives

    OPPORTUNITY COST!

  • choosing is REFUSING!

  • the cost of something is what you give up.

    OPPORTUNITY COST!


Eating candy4
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Economic reasoning principle 3 people respond to incentives in predictable ways
Economic Reasoning Principle # 3: But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based. People respond to incentives in predictable ways.

  • Choices are influenced by incentives, the rewards that encourage and the punishments that discourage actions. When incentives change, behavior changes in predictable ways.

  • People do what makes them better off.

  • Marginal Benefit, Marginal Cost (MB > MC).


Choosing Between Alternatives But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Eating candy5
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Do You Want to Trade? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Eating candy6
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Do You Want to Trade? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Eating candy7
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Eating candy8
Eating Candy But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


A fact regarding benefits
A Fact Regarding Benefits But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

  • The benefit (value) of the next one will eventually be lower.

  • Diminishing marginal benefit (value).

  • Value is based on benefit received.

  • Rolos, Washing machines, automobiles, houses, vacations.


Wheat or oranges
Wheat or Oranges? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Wheat or oranges1
Wheat or Oranges? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Wheat or oranges2
Wheat or Oranges? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Which is more realistic
Which is more realistic? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

Production Possibilities Frontier (PPF): Graphical representation of the possible goods/services an economy can produce at a given time with the available resources and technology


Wheat or oranges3
Wheat or Oranges? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


A fact regarding costs
A Fact Regarding Costs But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

  • The cost of the next one will eventually be higher.

  • Rising marginal cost.

  • Cost is based on what is given up.

  • Wheat vs. Oranges, work, vacations, China and India growing economies


Choose between alternatives
Choose Between Alternatives But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

  • Do it if……

  • MB > MC


Big ideas
Big Ideas But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

  • choices → TRADE-OFFS → forgone alternatives

  • OPPORTUNITY COST!

  • choosing is REFUSING!

  • the cost of something is what you give up.

  • OPPORTUNITY COST!


Why can’t we have all we want? But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.


Big ideas1

People do things that make them better off. But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

Diminishing marginal value (benefit).

Rising marginal cost (opportunity cost).

The rules of the game shape how decisions are made.

Decisions determine outcomes.

Big Ideas


Choose between alternatives1

Choosing Between Alternatives But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

Choose Between Alternatives


Quote From Thomas Sowell But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

"What is YOUR solution?“

"There are no solutions," I said. "There are only trade-offs.“

"The people DEMAND solutions!" she shot back angrily.

The people can demand square circles if they want. But that doesn't mean that they will get them.

Opportunity Cost!


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