Economics for leaders
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Economics for Leaders. Let’s Learn Some ECON. Don’t try to write down everything I say Lectures will be fast-paced with lots of information and lots of interaction Pay attention and get involved As the week ends, it will come together You can have all of these slides and materials.

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Economics for Leaders

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Economics for leaders

Economics for Leaders


Let s learn some econ

Let’s Learn Some ECON

  • Don’t try to write down everything I say

  • Lectures will be fast-paced with lots of information and lots of interaction

  • Pay attention and get involved

  • As the week ends, it will come together

  • You can have all of these slides and materials


Shining students

Shining Students

  • Each morning I will award a prize to one or two students who shined the day before

  • If you want to win then you need to be alert, engaged and participate in a meaningful way

  • Let’s have some FUN!

  • Post-Test at the end of the week (80%)**


Joke of the day

Joke of the Day

Joke Of The Day

At the end of the day, always remember…


Joke of the day1

Joke of the Day

Joke Of The Day

You can tune a piano, but…


Joke of the day2

Joke of the Day

Joke Of The Day

You can’t TUNA FISH!


Joke of the day3

Joke of the Day

Joke Of The Day


Economics for leaders1

Economics for Leaders


Hypotheses for the week

Hypotheses for the Week

  • Human Prosperity and social cooperation develop spontaneously in societies that protect property rights and encourage voluntary trade/exchange.

  • Developing an economic way of thinking empowers people to understand and explain the world in which we live.


Why are some countries rich poor

Why are some countries rich and others poor?

Why are some countries rich/poor?


Economics for leaders

Why do we care?


Why do we care

Why do we care?


Economics for leaders

Opinions matter and are of equal value at the ballot box. But on matters of rational deliberation the value of an opinion is determined by the knowledge and evidence on which it is based.

Statements of opinion should initiate the quest for economic understanding, not end it.

Economic Reasoning Principle #5:

Understanding based on knowledge and

evidence imparts value to opinions.


The rules of the game institutions norms

The Rules of the GameInstitutions & Norms

  • The rules of the game shape how decisions are made.

  • Decisions determine outcomes.

  • People respond to incentives in predictable ways.


Scarcity

Scarcity

  • Something is scarce if society cannot have all it wants at no cost.

  • By cost we mean OPPORTUNITY COST.

  • Some things are more scarce than others.

  • Relative scarcity is determined by what must be given up.


Choices

Choices

  • Because the world is characterized by scarcity, we are forced to make choices.

  • We must allocate scarce resources among competing uses.

  • Wood that is used for tables and chairs cannot be used for crutches (or forest).

  • Land that is kept undeveloped cannot be used to build housing for the poor.

  • Time


Eating candy

Eating Candy


Opportunity cost

Opportunity Cost

  • Because we are forced to make choices (scarcity), we are faced with costs.

  • The cost of any choice is what is given up.

  • Choosing is REFUSING!


Economics for leaders

Choosing Between Alternatives


Eating candy1

Eating Candy


Economics for leaders

Do You Want to Trade?


Eating candy2

Eating Candy


Economics for leaders

Do You Want to Trade?


Economics for leaders

Economic Reasoning Principle #1: People choose, and individual choices are the source of social outcomes.

  • Scarcity necessitates choices: not all of our desires can be satisfied. People make these choices based on their perceptions of the expected costs and benefits of the alternatives.


Economics for leaders

Economic Reasoning Principle # 2: Choices impose costs; people receive benefits and incur costs when they make decisions.

  • The cost of a choice is the value of the next-best alternative foregone, measurable in time or money or some alternative activity given up.

  • What did you give up to be here?


Eating candy3

Eating Candy


Economics for leaders

  • choices → TRADE-OFFS → forgone alternatives

    OPPORTUNITY COST!

  • choosing is REFUSING!

  • the cost of something is what you give up.

    OPPORTUNITY COST!


Eating candy4

Eating Candy


Economic reasoning principle 3 people respond to incentives in predictable ways

Economic Reasoning Principle # 3: People respond to incentives in predictable ways.

  • Choices are influenced by incentives, the rewards that encourage and the punishments that discourage actions. When incentives change, behavior changes in predictable ways.

  • People do what makes them better off.

  • Marginal Benefit, Marginal Cost (MB > MC).


Economics for leaders

Choosing Between Alternatives


Eating candy5

Eating Candy


Economics for leaders

Do You Want to Trade?


Eating candy6

Eating Candy


Economics for leaders

Do You Want to Trade?


Eating candy7

Eating Candy


Eating candy8

Eating Candy


A fact regarding benefits

A Fact Regarding Benefits

  • The benefit (value) of the next one will eventually be lower.

  • Diminishing marginal benefit (value).

  • Value is based on benefit received.

  • Rolos, Washing machines, automobiles, houses, vacations.


Wheat or oranges

Wheat or Oranges?


Wheat or oranges1

Wheat or Oranges?


Wheat or oranges2

Wheat or Oranges?


Which is more realistic

Which is more realistic?

Production Possibilities Frontier (PPF): Graphical representation of the possible goods/services an economy can produce at a given time with the available resources and technology


Wheat or oranges3

Wheat or Oranges?


A fact regarding costs

A Fact Regarding Costs

  • The cost of the next one will eventually be higher.

  • Rising marginal cost.

  • Cost is based on what is given up.

  • Wheat vs. Oranges, work, vacations, China and India growing economies


Choose between alternatives

Choose Between Alternatives

  • Do it if……

  • MB > MC


Big ideas

Big Ideas

  • choices → TRADE-OFFS → forgone alternatives

  • OPPORTUNITY COST!

  • choosing is REFUSING!

  • the cost of something is what you give up.

  • OPPORTUNITY COST!


Economics for leaders

Why can’t we have all we want?


Big ideas1

People do things that make them better off.

Diminishing marginal value (benefit).

Rising marginal cost (opportunity cost).

The rules of the game shape how decisions are made.

Decisions determine outcomes.

Big Ideas


Choose between alternatives1

Choosing Between Alternatives

Choose Between Alternatives


Economics for leaders

Quote From Thomas Sowell

"What is YOUR solution?“

"There are no solutions," I said. "There are only trade-offs.“

"The people DEMAND solutions!" she shot back angrily.

The people can demand square circles if they want. But that doesn't mean that they will get them.

Opportunity Cost!


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