L13 & 14: The War Ends & The Treaty of Versailles
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L13 & 14: The War Ends & The Treaty of Versailles. Agenda Objective : To understand… How WW1 ends The Treaty of Versailles & its origins & implications. The relationship between the Treaty and the rest of the war Our own opinions and interpretations of the significance of the Treaty.

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L13 & 14: The War Ends & The Treaty of Versailles

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L13 14 the war ends the treaty of versailles

L13 & 14: The War Ends & The Treaty of Versailles

  • Agenda

  • Objective:

  • To understand…

  • How WW1 ends

  • The Treaty of Versailles & its origins & implications.

  • The relationship between the Treaty and the rest of the war

  • Our own opinions and interpretations of the significance of the Treaty.

  • Schedule:

  • The End of World War One

  • The Treaty of Versailles

  • Discussion

  • Homework

  • Creative Project Due L17 (Tues 1/29)

  • Unit Test L18 (Thurs 1/31)


Spring 1918

Spring 1918

  • In the spring of 1918, Germany seemed in a relatively favorable military position:

    • Russia had left the war and the Eastern Front was closed.

    • The United States had entered the war, but troops had yet to arrive in Europe.

  • Military leadership in

    Germany believed the

    nation could still win a

    definitive victory on the

    Western Front if it struck

    quickly before the U.S.

    arrived.


The german gamble doesn t pay off second battle of the marne spring summer 1918

The German Gamble Doesn’t Pay Off: Second Battle of the Marne (Spring/Summer 1918)

  • Initially there are sustained attacks in which Germany gains territory. The war is turning in their favor (March-June 1918)

  • However, soon America arrives and reinforces French & British troops (July 1918).

  • As allied counterattacks continue, 250,000 U.S. troops arrive per month.

    • This considerably boosts French & British morale and battlefield strength

  • Western front begins to roll back

    and into Germany (Early August 1918)

  • Becomes clear to Germany that they

    could not stop the Allied advance.


German revolution 1918 1919

German Revolution 1918-1919

  • In October 1918, as conditions at the front grew increasingly brutal, sailors in the port city of Kiel mutinied.

  • The revolt quickly spread from the sailors to the workers of the city.

  • From there, revolution spread to other cities.

    • Women and men laid down their tools, gathered in courtyards, or in the main hall of the factories in protest.

  • Demanded an immediate end to the war, the removal of the Kaiser, and a new democratic government.


German revolution 1918 1919 armistice

German Revolution 1918-1919 & Armistice

  • On November 9, 1918, the royal leaders of the German states began to abdicate.

  • Then the Kaiser abdicated.

  • In its place a new democratic government was established (the Weimar Republic)

  • On November 11, 1918 representatives of the new government signed an armistice that ended the hostilities.


The weimar republic

The Weimar Republic

  • The new government created out of the German Revolution, was the Weimar Republic.

  • August 1919-1933

  • Democracy (Parliamentary)

  • Led by members of the Social Democrats, Catholics, and Democratic parties.

  • First democracy in Germany


Request for armistice and the german people

Request for Armistice and the German People

  • The request for armistice came as a shock to the German people.

    • Vigorous censorship had kept the public from having any grasp of Germany’s declining military situation at the end of the war.

    • At no time during the war had

      Germany been invaded from the

      West and by mid-1918 the German

      army had seemed on the brink of

      victory.

    • In the words of one historian: “It

      seemed inconceivable that Germany

      had lost, plain and simple.”

  • Some German people began to

    believe that political betrayal at

    home by the new Weimar Republic must have undermined the German military effort.

    • This would prove fateful as Germany tried to rebuild after the war.


Crafting a treaty to end the war

Crafting a Treaty to End the War

  • With the armistice signed, the next task was to craft a treaty to officially end the war.

  • What is a treaty?

  • What is the purpose

    of a treaty?

  • How should winners

    and losers of a war should be treated in a treaty?


Crafting the treaty

Crafting the Treaty

  • Leaders of Britain (Lloyd George), France (Georges Clemenceau), and the United States (Woodrow Wilson) meet to craft the treaty and they each bring with them different perspectives of the purpose of the treaty.

  • Notice, Germany was not allowed to participate in the drafting of the treaty.

  • Let’s take a look at the views of each leader…


Crafting the treaty1

Crafting the Treaty

  • How would you characterize the perspectives of each leader and their goals for the Treaty?

    • Lloyd George quote…

  • Whose view do you agree with and why?

  • Given these perspectives, what do you think the terms of the Treaty of Versailles will be?


Treaty of versailles

Treaty of Versailles

  • Let’s take a look at the terms of the treaty…

  • What trends do you notice?

  • Which country was most pleased with how the negotiations turned out? Most displeased?

  • What are your reactions to this treaty?


The terms of the treaty of versailles

The Terms of the Treaty of Versailles

  • While the treaty included many provisions, four terms and conditions imposed upon Germany stand out as among the most important and controversial elements:

    • Territorial losses

    • Demilitarization

    • Reparations

    • War Guilt Clause (Article 231) - German acceptance of full responsibility for causing the war


Effect of treaty of versailles on germany territorial loss

Effect of Treaty of Versailles on Germany: Territorial Loss

  • Where do you see examples of territorial loss?

  • Why do you think this territorial loss occurred?

  • Do you think this territorial loss was warranted?


Effect of treaty of versailles on germany demilitarization

Effect of Treaty of Versailles on Germany: Demilitarization

  • Where do you see examples of demilitarization?

  • Was it reasonable to demilitarize Germany?

  • Is it reasonable to disarm a former enemy?


Effect of treaty of versailles on germany reparations

Effect of Treaty of Versailles on Germany: Reparations

  • How much was Germany required to pay?

  • What effect do you think would have on the German economy?

  • Why do you think Germany was ordered to pay the entire cost of the war?

  • Do you think it reasonable to have the alleged instigator of war pay the total cost of conflict? Should nations be held financially responsible for wars?


Effect of treaty of versailles on germany war guilt article 231

Effect of Treaty of Versailles on Germany: “War Guilt” (Article 231)

  • Why does the Treaty single Germany out as the instigator of war?

  • Based on your knowledge, is this accurate? Does Germany warrant more responsibility than other countries?

  • What is the purpose of having Germany claim moral responsibility for starting the war?


German response to the treaty of versailles

German Response to the Treaty of Versailles

  • How do you think Germany feels?

    • How did the German group feeling watching the negotiations?

  • Germany was allowed to fashion a reply to the treaty draft, but its terms were summarily rejected by the Allies.

  • When Germany was presented with the treaty they protested it, but they had no alternative but to sign. They articulated their response in a “Reply Memorandum.”

    • What objections does Germany raise to the treaty?

    • Are these objections valid?

    • Should the Allies have modified the treaty in any way to address these points?


The treaty of versailles is signed

The Treaty of Versailles is Signed

  • On June 28, 1919 German representatives signed the treaty in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles.

    • The same place where Bismarck’s empire had been proclaimed 50 years earlier.

  • As we will see, Germany will face enormous challenges at it tries to be reborn as a democracy in the context of military defeat.


Treaty of versailles discussion

Treaty of Versailles Discussion

  • How is the Treaty an attempt to resolve the sense of purposelessness coming out of World War One?

  • How is the Treaty of Versailles an extension of the total war / war of attrition strategy practiced during the war?

  • How is the Treaty of Versailles another example of a 19th century military strategy applied to a 20th century war?

  • What problems do you think the terms of the Treaty of Versailles might lead to?


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