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In pursuit of satisfaction & fortification: Stakeholder Perceptions of NCAA Wrestling Entertainment Value. Coyte G. Cooper, Ph.D. West Virginia University Erianne Weight, Ph.D. Bowling Green State University. Introduction to Research. Introduction Review of Related Literature

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In pursuit of satisfaction & fortification: Stakeholder Perceptions of NCAA Wrestling Entertainment Value

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In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

In pursuit of satisfaction & fortification:

Stakeholder Perceptions of NCAA Wrestling

Entertainment Value

Coyte G. Cooper, Ph.D.

West Virginia University

Erianne Weight, Ph.D.

Bowling Green State University


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Introduction to Research

  • Introduction

  • Review of Related Literature

  • Methodology

  • Purpose of Research

  • Results

  • Discussion

  • Conclusion/Questions

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (i)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

I. Introduction to Research

  • The dire situation facing amateur wrestling

    • Program eliminations: 363 in 1981 to 234 in

    • 2005 (Student-athlete, 2006)

    • Recent eliminations: Four college programs in first

    • month of 2009 (Moyer, personal interview, January

    • 26, 2009)

    • Blaming Title IX?

  • How to improve sustainability?

    • Improve revenues realized at local level

    • Enhancement of marketing efforts

    • Critical: Analysis of core product

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (1)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

II. Review of Literature

(Theoretical Framework)

  • Customer Satisfaction Theory:

  • “A judgment that a product or service feature, or the product

  • or service itself, provided (or is providing) a pleasurable level

  • of consumption-related fulfillment” (Oliver, 1997).

  • Implications:

    • Enhancement of loyalty levels (Trail, Anderson, & Fink, 2005; Oliver, 1977; Oliver, Rust, & Varki, 1997)

    • Increased revenues through repeat purchases (Anderson, Fornell, & Lehmann, 1994; Anderson & Mittal, 2000; Laverie & Arnett, 2000)

    • Increase in positive word-of-mouth advertising (Kotlar, 1994)

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (2)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Review of Literature

(Importance of Entertainment)

  • Core product is made up of the following elements (Mullin, Hardy, & Sutton, 2007):

    • Game form (rules/techniques)

    • Players (athletes/coaches)

    • Equipment and apparel

    • Venue

  • “In game” rules have a significant impact on the

  • entertainment value offered at sport events (Aylott &

  • Aylott, 2007; Partori & Corredoira)

  • Must implement rules that increase action and

  • scoring to maximize consumer interest (Paul &

  • Weinbach, 2007)

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (3)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

III. Purpose of Research

  • Purpose: To survey stakeholders of college wrestling to identify their level of satisfaction with the core wrestling product being offered in intercollegiate athletics

  • Implications

    • Gain base understanding of fan’s perceptions of core product being offered

    • Understanding of fan’s perceptions based on segmentation

    • Suggestions for improvements

    • Improve core product to maximize consumer appeal

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (4)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

IV. Methodology

  • Survey Instrument:

    • Wrestling Consumer Satisfaction Scale (WCSS):

    • based on past similar scales (Tsuji et al., 2007)

    • Construct validity: Four collegiate wrestling

    • coaches, four collegiate wrestlers, four

    • professors, and one survey compilation specialists

  • Survey Distribution:

    • Stratified: national message board; regional

    • message boards

    • Test-Retest reliability (Correlation; Spearman-

    • Brown Coefficient)

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (5)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

V. Results

  • Surveys returned (n=1095); Usable surveys

  • (n=1023 [93.4%])

  • Demographics:

    • Gender (Male = 95.1%; Female = 4.9%)

    • Age (Mean = 26-34)

    • Background

      • Fan (n = 583; 53.6%)

        • High School Coach (n =475; 43.7%)

      • College Coach (n = 112; 10.3%)

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (6)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Fan Satisfaction: Core Product

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (7)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Fan Satisfaction: Rules & Regulations

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (8)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Fan Segmentation

(ANOVA’s – Age)

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (9)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Fan Segmentation

(ANOVA’s – Affiliation)

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (10)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Suggestions for Change

(Open-Ended Responses)

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (11)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Summary of Key Points

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (12)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

VI. Discussion

  • Attempt to cease the elimination of college

  • wrestling programs (Cooper, 2008)

  • Importance of marketing effectively at all levels

  • in the future (emphasis: grassroots level)

  • Build your foundation first: You must have a

  • strong core product to build fan base effectively

  • in future years

    • Rules dictate action and level of entertainment

    • experienced at wrestling events (Paul &

    • Weinbach, 2007)

  • Continue to adapt as industry changes

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (13)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

VII. Conclusions

  • Limitations of study:

    • Sample limited to loyal wrestling fans (online)

    • Broad analysis of rules and regulations

  • Future research:

    • More specific analysis of rules (casual and loyal fans)

    • Marketing based assessment

    • Changes to college wrestling schedule

      • Academic progress

      • Athletic competition enhancement

      • Consumer interest

NCAA Wrestling Entertainment (14)


In pursuit of satisfaction fortification stakeholder perceptions of ncaa wrestling entertainment value

Thanks for your time!

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