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Three Approaches in calculating GDP. Three Approaches. Mary spends a final good $10, the market value is $10, the income to the factors is $10 National Expenditure =National Output = National Income 1. Expenditure approach 2. Output approach 3. Income approach. Expenditure Approach.

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three approaches
Three Approaches
  • Mary spends a final good $10, the market value is $10, the income to the factors is $10
  • National Expenditure =National Output = National Income
  • 1. Expenditure approach
  • 2. Output approach
  • 3. Income approach
expenditure approach
Expenditure Approach

GDP = C + I + G + (X- M)

  • C = Private consumption expenditure
  • I = Investment Expenditure
  • G= Government Consumption Expenditure
  • X = Value of Exports
  • M = Value of Imports
main points
Main points
  • Expenditure on final goods and services
  • Expenditure on imports needed to be deducted from the calculation
c private consumption expenditure c
C= Private Consumption Expenditure (C)

1. Second Hand Goods

Ans: Exclude.There is no current production

2. Commission spent on buying a second-hand bag

Ans: Include. Current production

  • expenditure on illegal goods/services

Ans: Exclude. No official record

investment expenditure i
Investment Expenditure (I)

= Gross Domestic Fixed Capital Formation +

Change in Stock (Inventories)

Gross Domestic Fixed Capital Formation:

Expenditure on purchasing land, factories, flats, office, machinery, commission, legal charges

investment expenditure i1
Investment Expenditure (I)

Investors spend on intermediate goods and services

E.g. raw materials, electricity charges, water charges

Ans: Excluded because the value of the final goods already include the value of the intermediate goods and services.

investment expenditure i2
Investment Expenditure (I)
  • I = Gross domestic fixed capital formation + Change in stock
  • Gross domestic fixed capital formation = Net domestic fixed capital formation + depreciation
  • I = Net domestic fixed capital formation + depreciation + Change in stock
gross domestic fixed capital formation
Gross domestic fixed capital formation
  • An investor spent $1 million to buy 10 new printing machines and spent $10 000 to repair the old printing machines.
  • = Net domestic fixed capital formation ($1 million) + depreciation ($10 000)
investment expenditure i3
Investment Expenditure (I)
  • Change in Stock (Inventories)
  • E.g.1
  • 07 Output Value of Eason’s CDs = $10 000

Sales = $8 000

Stock = +$2 000

GDP = C + I + G + (X –M)

= +$8 000 + $2 000 + 0 + (0-0)

investment expenditure i4
Investment Expenditure (I)
  • Change in stock:

E.g. 07 Output value of U2 clothing

= $50 000

Sales = $70 000

Stock = -$20 000

GDP= C + I + G + (X- M)

= +$ 70 000 + (-$20 000) +0+ (0-0)

investment expenditure
Investment expenditure
  • G2000 bought a new office in Tsuen Wan at $2 million. It spent $70 000 on buying an old lorry and spent $20 000 on buying cloth from a HK importer.
  • The total consumer expenditure on G2000 this year is $5 million. And the value of its stock increases by $0.5Mn
government expenditure g
Government Expenditure (G)

Items Included:

e.g. Housing allowance of civil servants

e.g. Medical allowance of civil servants

e.g. Expenditure on building new airport

Items Excluded:

Transfer Payment/Public Assistance

net exports x m
Net Exports (X-M)
  • = Domestic Exports of goods

+ Re-exports of goods

+ Exports of Services

- Imports of Goods

- Imports of Services

  • Count the VALUES of import and export
net exports x m1
Net Exports (X-M)
  • Exports of services

Spending of foreign tourists in HK

e.g. transportation services

e.g. insurance / banking services

e.g. medical services

e.g. retail services (souvenirs)

e.g. hotel accommodation services

why we have to deduct import of goods and services why exclude it
Why we have to deduct import of goods and services? Why exclude it?
  • A HK resident bought a new LV bag in a HK boutique = $6 000
  • The import value = $2 500

GDP = C + I + G + (X- M)

= $6 000 + 0 + 0 + (0 - $2500)

  • It reflects the production by our RPUs.
expenditure on shares and stock
Expenditure on shares and stock
  • Today, Ms May Chan bought $10 000 shares of China Coal at the price $7.88 per unit. The commission fee given to the share dealer is $500 and the stamp duty is $100.
  • Two weeks later, Ms May Chan decided to sell it at the price $8.8
  • How much will be included in Hong Kong’s Gross Domestic Product?
production valued added approach
Production (Valued-added) approach
  • Measures the total market value of all final goods and services
  • It is difficult to distinguish between intermediate goods and final goods.
  • To avoid double counting, valued-added method is used.
production approach value added approach
Production Approach (Value-added Approach)
  • GDP= sum of value-added of RPUs

1. Farmers’ value-added

= $2 (Wheat) – 0 (Cost) = $2

2. Flour-making factory

= $3.5 (Flour) - $2 (Wheat) = $1.5

3. Bakery Shop

= $6 (Bread) - $3.5 (Flour) = $2.5

income approach
Income approach

Measure the sum of income for the factors of production distributed by the RPUs.

The rewards to their production of goods and provision of services.

income included or excluded
Income included or excluded?
  • Scholarships to students
  • Commission received by stock brokers
  • Insurance compensation to injured workers
  • Gift cheque to a bride
gdp at factor cost
GDP at factor cost

In theory, no government intervention

local production of cigarettes $24,

Market value = factor income

= total cost

= total value-added =$24

But if there is indirect tax or subsidies,

Market value ≠total value-added

gdp at factor cost1
GDP at factor cost

e.g. 1: cigarettes : market price =$24

Indirect business tax = $4

GDP at market price = $24

GDP at factor cost = $24 - $4 = $20 = total value-added

gdp at factor cost2
GDP at factor cost

e.g. 2: education in university

Total value-added in university =$140

Subsidy = $20

School fee = $120

GDP at market price = $120

GDP at factor cost = $120 + $20 = $140

= total value-added

gdp at factor cost3
GDP at factor cost

GDP at factor cost (total value-added)

= GDP at market price

– indirect business tax (IBT)

+ Subsidies (S)

three formula
Three formula:
  • GDP at market price=C+I+G+(X-M)
  • GDP at factor cost=sum of value added
  • GDP at factor cost

= wage+rent+interest+gross profits+depreciation

  • GDP at factor cost + indirect business taxes –subsidies

= GDP at market price

gross national product
Gross National Product
  • It measures the total income earned by residents of an economy from engaging in various economic activities, irrespective of whether the economic activities are carried out within the economic territory or outside, in a specified period.
gross national product1
Gross National Product
  • Income earned involved in economic activities (production) and
  • Income earned by residents (individuals / organizations) and
  • The economic activities are carried out within or outside the economic territory and
  • In a current year
gross national product2
Gross National Product
  • From GDP to GNP:
  • GNP = GDP + Income earned by residents outside the economic territory - Income earned by non-residents within the economic territory.
  • GNP = GDP + Net Factor Income from abroad (NIA)
  • NIA = Net External factor income flows
gdp vs gnp
GDP vs GNP
  • Under what situation when GDP is greater than GNP?
  • Income earned by non-residents locally is greater than income earned by residents abroad
  • Net Income from abroad is negative
based on tb p 33 table 2 3
Based on TB P.33 Table 2.3
  • In 1999-2001, Is it visible trade deficit or surplus or balanced?
  • In 1999-2001, Is it invisible trade deficit or surplus or balanced?
  • Is it net exports positive or negative?
  • Why change in inventories is negative?
based on tb p 35 table 2 6
Based on TB P.35 table 2.6

The Net External Factor Income Flow=

Net Factor Income from abroad

It is always positive, what does it imply?

per capita gdp
Per capita GDP
  • GDP / population size
  • If we compare HK’s GDP with China’s GDP, which one is larger?
  • If we compare HK’s per capita GDP with China’s GDP, which one is larger?
gdp at market price
GDP at market price

= Nominal GDP

= Money GDP

= GDP at current market price

real gdp
Real GDP

To remove the effects of price change,

We have Real GDP,

= GDP at constant market price

= Price in base year x Output in current year

implicit gdp deflator
Implicit GDP deflator

It is to reflect the change in the general price level of goods and services.

= Price Index

We assume the implicit GDP deflator is 100 in the base year.

implicit gdp deflator1
Implicit GDP deflator

=

If the index is greater than 100, it means that there is inflation compared with the base year.

money gdp growth rate
Money GDP growth rate

Money GDP growth rate

=

growth rate
Growth rate
  • The growth rate can be positive and negative.
  • If the growth rate is negative, it implies that the new one is less than the old one
compare money gdp growth rate and inflation rate
Compare money GDP growth rate and inflation rate
  • If the money GDP growth rate is greater than the inflation rate,
  • It implies that the output increases in the current year. Then the real GDP increases in comparison.
tb p 33 table 1 and 2
TB P.33 Table 1 and 2
  • Compare GDP at current market prices and GDP at constant (1990) market prices, which one is bigger?

2001 GDPmp= 2001 mp x 2001 output

2001 real GDP = 1990 mp x 2001 output

=> 2001 market price > 1990 market price

tb p 33 table 2
TB P.33 table 2
  • From 99 to 01, did the output in HK increase?
  • Yes. As 01 real > 00 real > 99 real GDP

99 real GDP = 90 mp x 99 output

00 real GDP = 90 mp x 00 output

01 real GDP = 90 mp x 01 output

tb p 33 table 21
TB P.33 table 2

Compare 00 and 01 real GDP, 01>00

It implies output has increased.

But compare 00 and 01 per capita real GDP,

What does it imply?

Which year population size is greater?

01

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