By john chang anand pattabiraman daniel riveros
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By: John Chang Anand Pattabiraman Daniel Riveros. The East Remains Dominant. Cerulean. The East over the West 12OO – 18OO. East stayed ahead of West up until late 19 th century Economically more advanced 1750 – East had 220% more income 1830 – East had 124% more income

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The East Remains Dominant

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By john chang anand pattabiraman daniel riveros

By: John Chang

Anand Pattabiraman

Daniel Riveros

The East Remains Dominant

Cerulean


The east over the west 12oo 18oo

The East over the West 12OO – 18OO

  • East stayed ahead of West up until late 19th century

    • Economically more advanced

      • 1750 – East had 220% more income

      • 1830 – East had 124% more income

      • 1860 – East had35% more income

      • 1870 – Europe finally caught up


Strong economic proof

Strong Economic Proof

  • 1820 – China compromised 29% of the world’s GDP,

    • Can be attributed to overpopulation.

  • 1750 – When compared to 1960 US dollars, China had equal per capita income to that of leaders in Europe.


East s gdp

East’s GDP

  • China compromised 33% of the world’s manufacturing

    • Comparing China to Britain

      • 1750 – China had 1600% output than that of Britain

      • 1800 – 670%

      • 1830 -215%

      • 1860 – Britain’s output finally equal China’s

  • In 1750 West contributed 23% while East had 77%

    • Only after 1850 did the West surpass the East


West surpasses the east

West surpasses the East

  • West GNP overtakes East in 1870

    • Ottoman Turkish never fell behind the West before 19th century

      • Standards of living must also be taking into account

        • Japanese generally ate healthier than British

        • China was more advanced water wise than Europe


Eurocentric argument

Eurocentric argument

  • Europe usually took bullion exports from other parts of the world

    • Andre Gunder Frank describes how the Americas and Japan produced silver, and Africa exported gold. However, Europe hardly produced anything


Europe was at a lost

Europe was at a lost

  • Asians supposedly preferred bullion because of hording

    • Asians collected taxes, which forced for more commercial economy

    • Asians resorted to global arbitrage (foreign exchange to profit from unequal prices)

    • Exchanged silver for gold, not hoarding but profiting

    • Used bullion to boost circulation and production


India and oriental despotism

India and Oriental Despotism

  • Eurocentric historians believe that India was a classical case of Oriental Despotism due to several beliefs:

    • Mughal anti capitalism

    • Mughal state was “all grasping”

    • No source of Indian credit

    • Rich merchants inexistent

    • Indian commerce was insignificant prior to British imperialism

    • India was isolated from International Trade

    • India could not obtain powerful productive power.


The mughal empire crushed all capitalist activity

The Mughal Empire crushed all capitalist activity.

  • Mughal Empire was either passive or promoted capitalism demonstrated by:

    • Royal navy aiding Gujurati merchants.

    • Exchange of peace-keeping letters between Mughal rulers and neighboring empires.


The mughal state was all grasping

The Mughal State was “all grasping”

  • Central state devolved power to the local authorities.

  • Trades and prices not administered by Central State.

  • Lack of monopolies in the economy.


There could not be sources of credit in the economy of india

There could not be sources of Credit in the economy of India.

  • Had well developed financial institutions.

  • Ahmadabad merchants recorded all payments and debts on paper.

  • Sarrafs engaged in deposit banking with merchants.


Rich merchants could not exist in india

Rich merchants could not exist in India.

  • Several extremely rich merchants did exist:

    • Abdul Ghafur – English East India Company

    • Virji Vora – Dutch East India Company


Indian trade was insignificant prior to british imperialism

Indian trade was insignificant prior to British Imperialism.

  • India was viewed as exotic and only cared for luxury trade – spices and textiles.

  • Town merchants actually controlled many of the peddlers.

  • Many long-distance traders who controlled Indian Ocean trade.


India was isolated from international trade

India was isolated from International Trade.

  • India was oriented towards an export economy rather than import.

  • India focused on Indian Ocean and internal commerce.

  • Railways carried 2,500 metric-ton miles.


India could not have impressive levels of productive power

India could not have impressive levels of productive power.

  • Wootz Steel Industry produced Damascus swords.

  • Cotton and Textile Industry controlled by India until 18th century


Tokugawa japan 1603 1868

Tokugawa Japan (1603 – 1868)

  • Often assumed as:

    • Backward and stagnant

    • Oriental despotism

    • Feudal economy

  • However, Japanese economic growth rate in Meiji Period exceeded almost all European economies.

    • Per capita income growth during Tokugawa


Meiji period ended feudalism

Meiji Period ended Feudalism?

  • Merely an endpoint of policies to undermine strongholds of feudalism

    • Daimyo (aristocracy)

    • Samurai (military vassals)

  • Policies began in first half of 1600s

http://homepage.ntlworld.com/neil_james.bruce/Honda-copy.jpg


Daimyo

Daimyo

  • Forced to live in Edo

    • Reduced local autonomy

  • Accumulated high personal debt

    • Land taken by Meiji state to get rid of debt

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:Location_TokyoJapan.jpg


Samurai

Samurai

  • Forced to live in castle towns

    • Growing urban numbers led to advances in agriculture

  • Markets took over subsistence cropping

  • Samurai separation promoted incentive for peasants to produce more

  • Eventually led to commercialization


Rapid commercialization

Rapid Commercialization

  • Peasants’ knowledge enhanced through agricultural treatises

  • More area for irrigated

    crops

  • Rising productivity levels

  • National currency

http://www.pierre-marteau.com/images/coins/japan-koban-1714.jpg


Tokugawa japan

Tokugawa Japan

http://www.wwnorton.com/college/history/worlds/images/map4_6.jpg


Economic significance

Economic Significance

  • 1630 - First credit institutions formed in Osaka

  • 1670 – Group of Ten responsible for money market

  • Similar to a central bank

    • Held final reserves of banking system

    • Deposits, advances, bill discounts, insurance

  • Advancement of industry

    • Fishing, textiles, paper-making, metalworking


Japanese isolationism

Japanese Isolationism

  • Sakoku – ‘closed country’ in 1639

  • Eurocentric scholars believe Japan withdrew from international trade

    • Confirms oriental despotism and economic stagnancy


Japanese isolationism1

Japanese Isolationism

  • Eurocentric scholars misunderstood sakoku

  • Policy used to regulate foreign trade and get rid of foreign Catholic ideas

  • Japan continued trade with China, Korea, Dutch, Siam, and later, South-East Asia


Eurocentric vs hobson

Eurocentric vs. Hobson

  • Commodore Perry opened up a closed Japan

    • Japan was already global

  • Meiji Japan only succeeded because it imitated the West

    • Industrialization prompted to counter China’s dominance

  • Tokugawa Japan was regressive oriental despotism

    • Groundwork for Meiji industrialization laid during Tokugawa Period


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