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Unix network interface configuration Cisco network interface configuration Static routes Default route Testing. Static Routing Exercise. Routing. Routing is done based on destination IP address Without routing, interface can only reach destinations via ARP

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static routing exercise
Unix network interface configuration

Cisco network interface configuration

Static routes

Default route

Testing

Static Routing Exercise
routing
Routing
  • Routing is done based on destination IP address
  • Without routing, interface can only reach destinations via ARP
  • Cannot reach a destination on another separate network without going through an intermediate device
  • A device with at least 2 interfaces can route
routing1
Routing
  • Static routes
    • specifically instructs router on which route to take to a particular destination network
  • dynamic routes
    • learnt via routing protocols implemented on routers
  • default routes
    • route that instructs a machine where to send packets for destinations that are not on the routing table
static routing
Static Routing
  • Advantages
    • Simple to configure and maintain
    • Secure as only defined routes can be accessed
    • Bandwidth is not used for sending routing updates
  • Disadvantages
    • Manual update of routes after changes
    • Explicit addition of routes for all networks
ip routing configuration static default route example
IP Routing ConfigurationStatic/default route example

To Internet

172.16.3.2

172.16.1.0

255.255.255.0

172.16.2.2

172.16.3.1

172.16.2.1

ip route 172.16.1.0 255.255.255.0 172.16.2.1 - STATIC

ip route 0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 172.16.3.1 - DEFAULT

slide6

SWITCH

HUB

HUB

HUB

HUB

HUB

HUB

HUB

HUB

HUB

HUB

A

B

PC

Router

PC

Router

C

D

PC

PC

Router

Router

E

F

PC

Router

PC

Router

G

H

PC

PC

Router

Router

I

J

PC

Router

PC

Router

Classroom Layout

address allocation

A

B

81.199.108.80/28

81.199.108.96/28

C

D

81.199.108.112/28

81.199.108.128/28

E

F

81.199.108.160/28

81.199.108.144/28

G

H

81.199.108.176/28

81.199.108.192/28

I

J

81.199.108.208/28

81.199.108.224/28

Address Allocation

SWITCH

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

81.199.108.0/28

.7

.8

.9

.10

address allocation1
You already have an IP address for your router’s backbone link (A=.1, B=.2, …)

You have a /28 for your local network (PC and router connected to hub)

Allocate your own host addresses from your local /28 network

Address Allocation
network interface configuration freebsd
configure interface on Unix host

ifconfig fxp0 inetn.n.n.nnetmaskm.m.m.m

fxp0 is interface name

n.n.n.n is IP address

m.m.m.m is netmask

Network interface configuration - FreeBSD
connect pc to router console
Connect cable to console port on router, serial port on FreeBSD box

Use the tip command to connect your keyboard and screen to the serial port

e.g. bash$ tip cuaa0c

You may have to edit /etc/remote

See man pages for tip(1) and remote(5)

Connect PC to router console
network interface configuration cisco
Network interface configuration - Cisco
  • configure backbone interface on cisco router

conf t

interface ethernet0/0

ip address n.n.n.n m.m.m.m

    • ethernet0/0 is interface name
    • n.n.n.n is IP address
    • m.m.m.m is netmask
  • configure local interface on cisco router
    • ethernet0/1
network interface configuration cisco1
Network interface configuration - Cisco
  • Cisco global config should always include:

ip classless

ip subnet-zero

no ip domain-lookup

  • Cisco interface config should usually include:

no shutdown

no ip proxy-arp

no ip redirects

test connectivity
PC can ping local interface of router

Router can ping PC

PC cannot ping backbone interface of router

Router can ping other routers

PC cannot ping other routers or other PCs

Test connectivity
add default route
Add default route
  • Add route on PC

route add default g.g.g.g

    • g.g.g.g is IP address of gateway (which is on cisco router)
  • Display forwarding table

netstat -f inet -rn

test connectivity1
Test connectivity
  • All PCs can now reach backbone IP address of own row
  • Still can’t reach other rows
    • why?
    • Do a traceroute to troubleshoot
add static routes to other rows
Add static routes to other rows
  • On router, add static routes to other rows
    • next hop is backbone interface of other row’s router

ip routen.n.n.n m.m.m.m g.g.g.g

  • Repeat many times
test connectivity2
Test connectivity
  • All routers can reach all PCs
  • All PCs can reach all backbone IP addresses
  • All PCs can reach PCs in other rows
  • Test with traceroute
address allocation2

A

B

81.199.108.80/28

81.199.108.96/28

C

D

81.199.108.112/28

81.199.108.128/28

E

F

81.199.108.160/28

81.199.108.144/28

G

H

81.199.108.176/28

81.199.108.192/28

I

J

81.199.108.208/28

81.199.108.224/28

Address Allocation

T2 router

SWITCH

81.199.108.14/28

.1

.2

.3

.4

.5

.6

81.199.108.0/28

.7

.8

.9

.10

add static routes to classroom router
Add static routes to classroom router
  • On router, remove all static routes

no ip routen.n.n.n m.m.m.m g.g.g.g

  • Repeat many times
  • Add default route to classroom router
    • next hop is backbone router

ip route0.0.0.0 0.0.0.0 g.g.g.g

test connectivity3
Test connectivity
  • All routers can reach all PCs
  • All PCs can reach all backbone IP addresses
  • All PCs can reach PCs in other rows
  • Test with traceroute
  • All static routes have now been added on classroom router
edit freebsd etc rc conf
On production machines, add lines to /etc/rc.conf to configure network on reboot

hostname="porcupine.tomato.example"

ifconfig_fxp0="inet X.X.X.X netmask Y.Y.Y.Y"

defaultrouter=”G.G.G.G"

See /etc/default/rc.conf for more information

Edit FreeBSD /etc/rc.conf
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