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Tatang H. Soerawidjaja
Head of Center for Research on Sustainable Energy, Institut Teknologi Bandung, and Chairman of Indonesian Biodiesel Forum
EAS Asia Biomass Seminar – Indonesia 1st Follow-up Workshop
“Biofuel Promotion in Indonesia of Sustainable Development”
Hotel Nikko, Jakarta, 17 – 18 March 2008
Biofuel is part of Bioenergy (includes biomass-based electricity).
Recall : Transportation sector is heavily dependent on fuel !.
Unique position of biofuel (compared to other renewable energy sources).
The question is not “should we develop domestic biofuel industry?” but rather “how should we nurture and develop a strong and sustainable domestic biofuel industry?”.
Developed countries :
Developing countries :
In the case of biofuels for transportation, biodiesel and bioethanol, the critical task of the government is to provide the infant biofuel industry with a stable initial market !.
The biofuels and their technologies will be treated as in the above order.
Of course :
Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO)Primitive or zeroth generation biodiesel ?
However, recall that :
Indonesian tentative quality standard for pure plant oil for non-automotive, constant load, low- to medium-speed ( 1500 rpm) diesel engines that are specially adapted to use the fuels
For small farmer pressing two or more type of oilseeds, screwpress is actually not suitable. The more appropriate presses are :
Bielenberg ram press
Hydraulic box press
Biodiesel in the current commercial meaning.
First generation biodiesel.
Main feedstocks : Oils of rapeseed or canola (Europe), soybean (USA), Palm and coconut (South-East Asia); all are edible.
E Edible fat/oil, NE Non-Edible fat/oil
Network of (multinational) petroleum refining corporation developed and promote the product and technology of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil (HVO) or Biohydrofined Diesel or Green Diesel. Large minimum economic size !. ( back into the centralized, giant-scale industry era)
If not improved, FAME biodiesel will lose in competition with HVO !.
adding (more) antioxidant additives, or
hydrogenating the polyunsaturated fatty acid chains to, at least, monounsaturated ones (iodine value 80). The process has been traditionally applied in the margarine and shortenings industry.
I.V. Iodine Value; S.V. Saponification Value
The second generation biodiesel is BTL (BTL Biomass-To-Liquids) diesel oil : a hydrocarbon diesel fuel produced from lignocellulosic biomass (oilpalm empty fruit bunches, bagasse, rice straw, corn stover, wood, etc.) through gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch synthesis technologies.
EX gasohol with X %-volume of dry bioethanol.
Need R & D, especially those of categories 2 and 3 !.
Kerosene is currently still the main cooking fuel of most village inhabitants and low income people in the urban areas of Indonesia.
Therefore, promotion of widespread small-scale generation and utilization of biogas should be a part of biofuel development program in Indonesia.