Issues in Implementation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Issues in implementation
1 / 37

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Issues in Implementation. Strategy Implementation and Strategy Formulation are directly related. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES. Implementation involves adjusting or aligning various internal mechanisms and processes so that they facilitate the execution of a planned strategy.

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

Issues in Implementation

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

Issues in implementation

Issues in Implementation

Strategy Implementation and Strategy Formulation are directly related.

Implementation issues


  • Implementation involves adjusting or aligning various internal mechanisms and processes so that they facilitate the execution of a planned strategy

Issues in implementation

Basic Elements Involved in Implementation




Human Resources



Issues in implementation

  • Changes in Organisational Structure

  • Changes in Culture

  • Changes in reward systems

  • Changes in skills underpinned by training

  • Changes in physical environment

  • Changes in marketing

Organisation structure

Organisation Structure

  • Role and Function of Structure

  • Structure and Strategy

  • Mintzberg’s View on Structure

  • Structural Types

  • Structures Under Change

Organisation structure1

Organisation Structure

  • The established pattern of relationships among the component parts of the organisation

  • The features which serve to control or distinguish its parts

Formal structure often described in terms of

Formal Structure Often Described In Terms Of:

  • The pattern of formal relationships and duties - charts, job descriptions, etc.

  • The way in which the various activities or tasks are assigned to differentiate departments and/or people - differentiation

  • The way in which separate activities or tasks are co-ordinated -integration

  • The power, status, and hierarchical relationships within the organisation - the authority system

  • The planned and formalised policies and procedures and controls that guide the activities and relationships of people in the organisation - the administrative system

Basic view of strategy structure relationship

Basic View Of "Strategy-Structure" Relationship




Crucial elements of chandlers thesis

Crucial Elements Of Chandlers Thesis

1. Organisation structure follows the growth strategies of the firm.

2. USA firms had followed a stage or stepwise process of development of strategies and structures.

3. Organisations do not change their structures until provoked by inefficiencies to do so.

4. Added later by Drucker and Miles and Snow:"structure constrains strategy".

Mintzberg s view on structure

Mintzberg’s view on Structure

  • The Strategic Apex

  • The Middle Line

  • The Technostructure

  • The Support Staff

  • The Operating Core

  • The Ideology

  • See pages 642-646 in Lynch

Basic structural types

Basic Structural Types



Matrix Forms

International Forms

Basic functional structure

Basic Functional Structure


  • Chief Executive in touch with all operations

  • Reduces/simplifies control mechanisms

  • Clear definition of responsibilities

  • Specialists at senior and middle management level

Basic functional structure1

Basic Functional Structure


  • Senior managers overburdened with routine matters

  • Senior managers neglect strategic issues

  • Difficult to cope with diversity

  • Coordination between functions difficult

Product market divisionalisation

Product Market Divisionalisation

Organisations may be divisionalised on different bases, amongst

which are included product part, geography and processes.


Lucas CAV











(Wiring &



World Service

Lucas Industries (Joseph Lucas Ltd) 1982

Issues in implementation

A conventional pyramid with a management services department ladder

Issues in implementation

Outline organisation chart for a decentralised geographically diverse company

Issues in implementation

Outline organisational chart for a heavily centralised geographically diverse company

Issues in implementation

A Matrix organisation structure

Chief Executive

Issues in implementation

Two cells (or autonomous work groups) alongside a conventional pyramid in computer department

Issues in implementation

  • Advantages

  • Low central overheads

  • Offsetting of individual business losses

  • Availability of cheaper finance for individual businesses

  • Spreading of risk for holding company

  • Ease of divestment for holding company

  • Disadvantages

  • Risk of divestment by holding company for individual business

  • Unavailability of skills at group level to assist individual businesses

  • Lack of synergy

Future directions in organisational structures due to change

Future Directions in Organisational Structures due to Change

Pressure for change 1

Pressure for Change 1

  • Increasing Competition

    • Internal pressures on costs - shake-out

    • Changes in staff functions - delayering

    • Middle management positions - obsolete ?

  • Impact of Information Technology

    • Flexible structures

    • Collegiate structures

    • do you need any ‘deep’ hierarchical structures ?

Pressure for change 2

Pressure for Change 2

  • Responsiveness

    • Quick response to market changes and pressures

    • Accelerated NPD

    • Quick to market - first mover advantages

  • Hollowing-out Bureaucracies

    • Sub-contacting and out-sourcing

    • Reconfiguring value chains

    • Emphasis on ‘managing the edges of the company’

Changes in strategy 1

Changes in Strategy (1)

Low price strategy

  • Key skills

  • Process design

  • labour supervision

  • easily produced products

  • Low-cost distribution

  • Requiring:

  • Tight cost control

  • Detailed reporting

  • Highly structured operation

  • Quantitative targets

Changes in strategy 2

Changes in Strategy (2)

Differentiation Strategy

Key skills:

  • Product design

  • Marketing and Creative Flair

  • Research Capability

  • Corporate image


  • Looser control/simple reporting

  • strong co-ordination

  • Market-based incentives

Issues in implementation1


It is invariably easier to think up

clever strategies than it is to make

them work under company, competitive and customer constraints

Formulation and implementation compared

Formulation and Implementation Compared

Strategy Formulation

  • An Intellectual Process

  • Requires Conceptual and Analytical Skills

  • Occurs Primarily at the Corporate Level

  • Co-ordination among the Few

  • Strategy Implementation

  • Operational

  • Requires Managerial and Motivational Skills

  • Permeates all Hierarchical Levels

  • Co-ordination among the Many

Problems of implementation


  • Implementation required more time than planned

  • Major problems were not anticipated

  • Activities were in-adequately co-ordinated

  • Crisis elsewhere in the company directed attention away from implementation

  • Problems arose due to uncontrollable external factors



  • Insufficient capabilities of involved employees

  • Inadequate leadership and direction

  • Poor definition of ket implementation tasks

  • Inadequate monitoring of activities by information system

    Alexander L.D.(1985)

Problems of implementation1


  • Employees were not capable enough

  • Managers did not provide adequate leadership and direction

  • Employees received inadequate training

  • Implementation tasks were not properly defined

  • Information system was not adequate

Points to remember in implementation

Points to Remember in Implementation

  • Do not overload functional departments

  • Contain shockwaves to a few manageable areas

  • Give personal attention to the relationship between strategy and operational plans

  • Concentrate on communicating the strategy

  • Keep implementation an ongoing process

Matching chief executives with strategic options

Matching Chief Executives with Strategic Options

Business Strength/Competitive Position

Strong Average Weak







Industry Attractiveness


Cautious profit



Analytical Portfolio



Source :Wheelen and Hunger

Issues in implementation

Implementation of Strategy and the Nature of the Strategy




Re-build / Ruin


Targets met and

Company Successful

Good Implementation

can allow Management

time to rebuild, but may

hasten failure

Implementation of the Strategy



Poor Implementation

hampers Strategy

Every thing has gone



Nature of the Strategy

Recent examples


The following are examples of poor implementation:

  • Trafalgar House’s Cunard fiasco in 1996 with the QE2 refit.

  • Disney’s problems with the Euro Disney theme park in Paris.

  • The Channel Tunnel project overruns.

  • BSE Crisis

Issues in implementation

Just Do It

And finally

And Finally

When a strong vision, culture, strategic intent and functional level concentration are combined, what emerges is that the business has soundness at the top (policies) and at the bottom (functions), rather than flashiness in the middle (programmes).

  • Login