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Understanding HL Learners and Learner Variation in the Classroom. STARTALK Workshop, 2014 NHLRC, UCLA Maria M. Carreira. Warm up Activity. Five core principles. Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

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Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

Understanding HL Learners and Learner Variationin the Classroom

STARTALK Workshop, 2014

NHLRC, UCLA

Maria M. Carreira


Warm up activity

Warm up Activity


Five core principles

Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Core principles cont

Core principles (cont.)

• In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and L2 learners’ complimentary strengths and needs and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up) approaches as needed.

• Design courses and programs that make linguistic and demographic sense. Build maximally homogeneous classes through placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the classroom.


Five core principles1

Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Core principles cont1

Core principles (cont.)

• In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and L2 learners’ complimentary strengths and needs and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up) approaches as needed.

• Design courses and programs that make linguistic and demographic sense. Build maximally homogeneous classes through placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the classroom.


What who is a heritage language learner

WHAT (WHO) IS A HERITAGE LANGUAGE LEARNER?


Definitions linguistic studies

Sources of information on learners

Definitions + linguistic studies


Third source

Third source?


You keep your eye on your learner

You: Keep your eye on your learner


Definitions

Definitions


Definitions who is a heritage language learner

Definitions:Who is a heritage language learner?

  • Narrow definitions – based on proficiency

  • Broad definitions – based on affiliation


Example of a narrow definition

Example of a narrow definition

“An individual who is raised in a home where a non-English language is spoken, who speaks or merely understands the heritage language, and who is to some degree bilingual in English and the heritage language” (Valdés, 2001, p. 38)


Example of a broad definition

Example of a broad definition

Heritage language learners are individuals who “…have familial or ancestral ties to a particular language and who exert their agency in determining whether or not they are HLLs (heritage language learners) of that HL (heritage language) and HC (heritage culture) (Hornberger and Wang, 2008, p. 27)


Learners who fit the narrow definition also fit the broad definition

Learners who fit the narrow definition also fit the broad definition

[email protected]

[email protected]


Five core principles2

Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Broad narrow definitions two orientations to hl teaching

Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to HL teaching

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Affective needs (broad definition)


Broad narrow definitions two orientations to hl teaching1

Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to HL teaching

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Affective needs (broad definition)


Needs stemming from broad definition

Needs stemming from broad definition?


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

In high school I was one of very few Latinos. My friend and I were called the "Mexican kids". This was always funny to me because my Dad's family always told me I was American. In school I was labeled Mexican, but to the Mexicans, I am an American. I am part of each, but not fully accepted by either. In high school, I was considered Mexican because I spoke Spanish but I was considered "Pocho" by my Dad's family because my Spanish was not up to their standard. It's this weird duality in which you are stuck in the middle. Latinos are often told that they are not Americans but also that they are not connected to their heritage. You take pride in both cultures and learn to deal with the rejection. You may never be fully embraced by either side. That's why you seek out other people like yourself. Socializing with people who share a common experience helps you deal with this experience.


Broad narrow definitions two orientations to hl teaching2

Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to HL teaching

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Affective needs (broad definition)


What else

Research

What else?


Typical learner from the nhlrc survey

Typical learner(from the NHLRC survey)

  • Has positive associations with his HL, but also some insecurities;

  • Is a “hyphenated American” (e.g. Arab-American)

  • Wants to learn more about his roots;

  • Wants to connect with other members of his/her community;

  • Enjoys using his/her HL to help others;

  • Would like to take professional advantage of his/her HL skills (only Spanish, Chinese, and Japanese speakers)


The typical learner benefits from his hl along the following dimensions

The typical learner benefits from his HL along the following dimensions

  • Peer relations;

  • Identity development;

  • Family connections;

  • Connection to the community;

  • Horizon expanding experiences;

    (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)


The typical learner benefits from his hl along the following dimensions1

The typical learner benefits from his HL along the following dimensions

  • Peer relations;

  • Identity development;

  • Family connections;

  • Connection to the community;

  • Horizon expanding experiences;

    (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)


Peer relations identity

Peer relations, identity

• All my life, I've been around people not of my native heritage. To be in a class with people of the same culture as I am feels inviting and accepting. I am now able to speak to my classmates in a different language whilst making myself feel integrated in my culture (Vietnamese)

• During middle school and high school, I felt that my heritage language was not something that I would consider a valuable skill. I only spoke Tagalog when calling relatives back in the Philippines during holidays and special occasions. I only started to take pride in my knowledge of my heritage language after coming to UCSD and joining Filipino clubs as well as enrolling in classes such as Advanced Filipino.


The typical learner benefits from his hl along the following dimensions2

The typical learner benefits from his HL along the following dimensions

  • Peer relations;

  • Identity development;

  • Family connections;

  • Connection to the community;

  • Horizon expanding experiences;

    (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)


Research on connections to hl culture family

Research on connections to HL culture, family

  • Immigrant children are generally best served by maintaining ties to their culture of origin. This is because immigrant cultures are the repositories of beliefs and attitudes that are conducive to success, such as respect of family and authority, deference for education, and optimism about the future. In addition, by holding on to their expressive culture immigrant children can retain a sense of identity and social connectedness, both of which are crucial to the psychological well-being of children (Suárez-Orozco and Suárez Orozco, 2001)


Family and community carreira kagan 2010

Family and community(Carreira & Kagan, 2010)

Knowledge of my heritage language has helped me outside of school in that I've been able to communicate and connect with my family and the greater Ethiopian community…Knowledge of my heritage language has also helped me at church in that I have been able to understand parts of and follow along in the sermons (which are partly held in Amharic). Perhaps the most important thing to note about knowing my heritage language is that it has allowed me to communicate with my family (especially because many older relatives, like my grandmothers, speak very little to no English at all).


The typical learner benefits from his hl along the following dimensions3

The typical learner benefits from his HL along the following dimensions

  • Peer relations;

  • Identity development;

  • Family connections;

  • Connection to the community;

  • Horizon expanding experiences;

    (Carreira and Kagan, 2010)


Expanding horizons carreira kagan 2010

Expanding horizons(Carreira & Kagan, 2010)

• It has helped me understand people better, and understand the different levels of diversity we have in our university. It has allowed me to understand who I am and how I relate to my school environment. (Chinese)

• It’s made me a more “global citizen”, “a more open-minded person”, “more curious of the other”


Five core principles3

Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

Activity time!

Activity I, pp. 3-4


Latin grandmas horsey or mousey

Latin grandmas: Horsey or mousey?


Naming practices how did you get your name

Naming practices: How did you get your name?


Living with spanish names in an english speaking society

Living with Spanish names in an English-speaking society

  • Two last names or one?

  • Nicknames?

  • Two different first names?

  • Maiden name or husband’s last name?

  • What do you do with difficult to pronounce names? Keep them as they are? Modify them? Drop and substitute?


Back to the two orientations of hl teaching

Back to the two orientations of HL teaching…


Broad narrow definitions two orientations to hl teaching3

Broad + narrow definitions = two orientations to HL teaching

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Affective needs (broad definition)


Hl learners linguistic needs are a function of

HL learners’linguistic needs are a function of

  • The context of learning

  • The timing of learning

  • The amount input

  • The type of input


Hl learner needs and strengths are a function of

HL learner needs and strengths are a function of

  • The context of learning: primarily, home

    -> informal, home register, perhaps non-standard

  • The timing of learning: early years, diminished or discontinued upon starting school

    -> similar to the language of children

    •The amount input: limited, relative to natives

    -> incomplete knowledge of the HL (missing features acquired later in life)

  • The type of input: oral, informal, spontaneous,

    -> implicit knowledge of the HL


Typical hl learner from nhlrc survey carreira and kagan 2010

Typical HL learner (from NHLRC Survey, Carreira and Kagan, 2010)

  • Used their HL exclusively until age 5, when they started school

  • Has visited their country of origin once or twice;

  • Listens to music, watches soap operas, and attends religious services in their HL (not much reading);

  • Little to no schooling in the HL;

  • US born


These personal characteristics map onto linguistic characteristics

These personal characteristics map onto linguistic characteristics


A metaphor for thinking about hlls linguistic proficiency

A metaphor for thinking about HLLs’ linguistic proficiency

  • A house in different stages of “life”


The foundations courtesy of margot mel

The foundations(Courtesy of Margot Mel)


A metaphor for language learning in children

A metaphor for language learning in children

• By age 3, the foundations of language are set;

• Between ages 5-8 the structure is fortified and critical details are added

• During adolescence the finishing touches are put in


The complete structure courtesy of margot mel

The complete structure(Courtesy of Margot Mel)


A metaphor for language learning in children1

A metaphor for language learning in children

• By age 3, the foundations of language are set;

• Between ages 5-8 the structure/framing is completed -> TYPICAL LEARNER

• During adolescence the finishing touches are put in


The finished house courtesy of margot mel

The finished house(Courtesy of Margot Mel)


A metaphor for language learning in children2

A metaphor for language learning in children

• By age 3, the foundations of language are set;

• Between ages 5-8 the structure/framing is completed -> TYPICAL LEARNER

• During adolescence the finishing touches are put in


What does this mean for us

What does this mean for us?

  • An HL learner who spoke his HL exclusively up to age 3 will likely have complete HL foundations (e.g. canonical gender, basic aspectual differences, word order);

  • An HL learner who spoke his HL exclusively or mostly spoke it between 5-8 will have pretty much the complete structure but will need the finishing touches (fine details);


What does your learner look like

What does your learner look like?

(1) The foundations are set;

(2) The framing is complete;

(3) The house is complete but in need of details


A more complete picture

A more complete picture…


Factors in heritage language development

Factors in heritage language development

  • Order of acquisition of the languages (HL first, followed by Eng., both lags. at the same time);

  • Age of acquisition of English(ages birth, 3-5, 6-10, adolescence)

  • Language use at home (only the HL, HL + Eng., English only);

  • Schooling in the HL;

  • General exposure to the HL (e.g. time spent abroad, media use, demographic density of local HL speakers, peer interactions);


Parenthetically

Parenthetically…

  • Yi (2008) examines how peer networks contributes to literacy.

  • The subjects of her study (2 Korean adolescents) were avid participants in instant messaging, online community posting, online diary writing, etc. to discuss topics of personal interest with their peers;

  • Yi argues that HL literacy should be tied to personal interests and peer relations.


Knowledge of the hl it boils down to exposure

Knowledge of the HL: It boils down to exposure

  • Order of acquisition:

    Simultaneous bilingual < sequential bilingual;

    • Age of acquisition of English: The later the better

  • Home use:

    Only HL < HL + English < Overwhelmingly English

    • Schooling:

    No schooling < schooling (a variety of types)

    • Other exposure (media, church, peers, family,

    travel abroad, social clubs, etc.)


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

Also…

• Language-learning aptitude

• General academic aptitude

• Motivation


Mini activity

Mini-activity


Order the following in terms of likely proficiency in the hl

Order the following in terms of likely proficiency in the HL

  • Sequential bilingual, attends church services in the HL, speaks English and HL at home;

  • Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at home;

  • Sequential bilingual, three years of community school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home.


Order the following in terms of probable proficiency in the hl

Order the following in terms of probable proficiency in the HL

  • Sequential bilingual, attends church services in the HL,, speaks English and HL at home, high language learning aptitude, is studying the HL to learn about his roots and connect with friends and family;

  • Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at home, hasvisited his HL country several times,wants to make professional use of the HL;

  • Sequential bilingual, three years of community school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home, is taking HL to fulfill a language requirement


Order the following in terms of hl learning motivation persistence

Order the following in terms of HL learning motivation/persistence

  • Sequential bilingual, attends church services in the HL,, speaks English and HL at home, high language learning aptitude, is studying the HL to learn about his roots and connect with friends and family;

  • Simultaneous bilingual, speaks English and HL at home, hasvisited his HL country several times,wants to make professional use of the HL;

  • Sequential bilingual, three years of community school, lives in a neighborhood with many HL speakers, speaks mostly the HL at home, is taking HL to fulfill a language requirement


Take away message

Take away message

  • It’s not so easy to classify HL learners for purposes of teaching;

  • Greater proficiency does not always mean “better” from the point of view of teaching/learning;

  • Variation has many dimensions (background, aptitude, motivations, etc.);


Take away message1

Take away message

  • It’s not so easy to classify HL learners for purposes of teaching;

  • Greater proficiency does not always mean “better” from the point of view of teaching/learning;

  • Variation has many dimensions;

  • Design the curriculum with the “typical HL learner” in mind (roughly), build in pathways for all learners;


Now we have a plan for the typical learner

Now we have a plan for the typical learner

Linguistic needs (narrow definition)

Socio-affective needs (broad definition)


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

Activity time again!

Activity II, p. 4


Are we done

Are we done?


Five core principles4

Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Traditionally language teaching has been what centered

Traditionally, language teaching has been “what centered”

“What centered” = “curriculum centered”

Teachers start at the front of the curriculum


The what centered view with l2 learners

The what-centered view with L2 learners


The curriculum centered classroom

The curriculum-centered classroom


But what if

But what if…


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

And...


The curriculum centered approach in a mixed class hl l2 learners

The curriculum-centered approach in a mixed class (HL + l2 learners)


The curriculum centered approach with hl learners an hl class all hlls

The curriculum-centered approach with HL learners (An HL class – all HLLs)


Classes with hl learners are always heterogeneous

Classes with HL learners are always heterogeneous

• Specialized HL classes;

• Mixed classes (HL + L2);

Effective teaching in both of these contexts requires dealing with issues of learner variation.


To respond to variation focus on the who

To respond to variation: Focus on the “who”

The learner


Who centered teaching

“Who” centered teaching


Five core principles5

Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Keep your eye on your learners

Keep your eye on your learners


Why do we need learner centered teaching

Why do we need learner-centered teaching?

  • HL learners differ from each other and from L2 learners with regard to key pedagogical issues:

    - linguistic ability (in the HL and in English)

    - language aptitude

    - academic skills

    - affective needs

    - goals for their HL


The institutional context introduces additional variation

The institutional context introduces additional variation

One-track program: L2 and HL learners together (mixed classes)

Dual-track program: Separate classes for L2 and

and HL learners (HL classes)

Type 1: Only one HL course (most

common);

Type 2: Two levels of HL instruction;


For now hl classes

For now…HL classes


A fitting metaphor for hl teaching

A fitting metaphor for HL teaching


What not to do

What not to do


Don t

Don’t…

  • Ignore diversity (i.e. exclude learners who don’t fit the model)

    I did not give particular consideration to HL--they are usually a very small segment of the class. (The programs survey)


Don t1

Don’t…

  • Enforce the paradigm/status quo at all cost: (i.e. force all learners to conform to the curriculum)

    (Name of book) does not address the needs of HL but it does a good job at the beginning level where the majority of our students take the (name of language) as a general language requirement and where we have less HL (15%) than at more advanced levels.


Don t2

Don’t

  • Create courses than are ill-conceived from a linguistic standpoint.


An hl class arabic 100 for hl learners

An HL Class: Arabic 100 for HL learners

Arabic: Diglossia

• Modern Standard Arabic (High prestige, formal situations, written, known by educated speakers, lingua franca among Arabs from different countries);

• Colloquial Arabic (Low prestige, home language, informal communications, not commonly written, mutually unintelligible regional dialects) (Maamouri 1998)

Arabic 100:

• 11 students from six Arab countries (Syria, Lebanon, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Morocco, Egypt) and 1 student from Indonesia (Muslim).

• 2 have four or more years of education abroad, 3 have three years of religious education in Arabic in the US; the rest have no literacy skills in Arabic;


Variation in arabic 100

Variation in Arabic 100

  • Between HL learners (as a function of life experiences)

  • Dialectal (language-specific properties)

  • Diglossic (language-specific properties)


An hl class hindi 100 for hl learners

An HL Class: Hindi 100 for HL learners

India: Hindi is the official language of the country. Individual states have their own official languages. 29 languages have over 1 million speakers. India’s languages stem primarily from two language families: Indo-Aryan in the north, and Dravidian in the south. Many languages have their own writing systems (Brass 2005, Hasnain 2003).

Gambhir (2008) identifies two primary categories of HL learners in Hindi classes – ancestral, associate (cognate and non-cognate)

Hindi 100:

16 students from five different language backgrounds;

Hindi/Urdu (7); Gujarati (4); Punjabi (2);Telugu (2); Marathi (1)


Variation in hindi 100

Variation in Hindi 100

• Dialectal

  • Cross linguistic (different languages)

  • Between learners (HL and L2)


The crux of the problem

The crux of the problem

  • In the Arabic and Hindi programs “HL classes” are seen as a “catch all” destination for all students that do not meet the traditional profile of L2 learners.

  • Arabic and Hindi 100 do not make linguistic sense.


A better conceived class japanese 300 third year college course

A better conceived class: Japanese 300 (Third year college course)

  • 16 students (12 HL learners + 4 L2 learners)

  • HL learners:

    All have intermediate-to-advanced aural skills

    8 had three or more years of schooling;

    4 had one to two years of schooling;

    • L2 learners: All had taken four semesters of Japanese


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

Do…

Program level: Mitigate the problems of diversity through smart curriculum design and placement.

1) Design courses that are tailored to the local student population and that make linguistic sense for them (orient teaching around the typical learner)

2) Use placement to build maximally homogeneous classes.

Class level: Accept and deal with diversity through Differentiated Teaching (DT). Build in pathways for all learners.


Five core principles6

Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Core principles cont2

Core principles (cont.)

• In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and L2 learners’ complimentary strengths and needs and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up) approaches as needed.

• Design courses and programs that make linguistic and demographic sense. Build maximally homogeneous classes through placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the classroom.


Taking stock

Taking stock


The what centered view of teaching enforces the paradigm at all cost

The “what” centered view of teaching enforces the paradigm at all cost


The who centered curriculum for the typical hl learner ignores diversity

The “who” centered curriculum for the typical HL learner ignores diversity


The next step

The next step…


The differentiated way build in pathways for all learners

The differentiated way: Build in pathways for all learners


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

T/F?

  • The narrow definition focuses on linguistic issues;

  • The “what” centered view of teaching is better suited to teaching HL learners than the “who” centered view of teaching;

  • Background factors can give an indication of linguistic ability in HL learners


This is a tool of differentiation

This is a tool of differentiation

  • Checks for understanding;

  • Tiered activities;


Tiered activities

Tiered activities

  • Teach the same concepts and skills, but at different levels of complexity;

  • All have common benchmarks


Writing activity

Writing activity

• Change the genre (go from short story to poem, song, etc.);

• Reduce the text;

• Writing inspired by the text


Writing activity1

Writing activity

• Change the genre (go from short story to poem, song, etc.);

• Reduce the text;

• Writing inspired by the text


Change the genre poem

Change the genre -> Poem

My name means hope

In Spanish

It has too many letters

Sadness

and w a I t I n g

It is the number 9

A muddy color

Mexican records

My father plays

When shaving, songs

Like sobbing


Recall

Recall…

  • Dragon Wings, Online workshop, Lesson 4

  • Novel -> play


Writing activity2

Writing activity

• Change the genre (go from short story to poem, song, etc.);

• Reduce the text;

• Writing inspired by the text


My name 324 126 words

My Name : 324 -> 126 words

In English my name means hope. In Spanish it means too many letters. It means sadness, it means waiting. It was my great-grandmother's name and now it is mine. My great-grandmother. I would've liked to have known her, a wild, horse of a woman, so wild she wouldn't marry. Until my great-grandfather threw a sack over her head and carried her off. I wonder if she made the best with what she got or was she sorry because she couldn't be all the things she wanted to be. Esperanza. I have inherited her name, but I don't want to inherit her place by the window. I would like to baptize myself under a new name, a name more like the real me, the one nobody sees.


Writing activity3

Writing activity

• Change the genre (go from short story to poem, song, etc.);

• Reduce the text;

•Writing inspired by the text


Acrostic poem

Acrostic Poem

Motherly

Appreciative

Resilient

Inventive

Affectionate


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

E

S

P

E

R

A

N

Z

A


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

Engaging

Sincere

Playful

Earnest

Rebellious

Artistic

Nostalgic

Zesty

Articulate


Writing inspired by the text

Writing inspired by the text

My grandmother is a piano sonata;

Lavender soap;

A rocking chair;

A pearl necklace;

Nilla wafers after school.


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

Activity time again!

Activity III, pp. 4-5


Why tiered activities

Why tiered activities?


Understanding hl learners and learner variation in the classroom

  • Tiered activities differentiate product – i.e. how students demonstrate mastery of the material.

  • You can differentiate product by learner interest, readiness, learning style…


What else can you differentiate

What else can you differentiate?

  • Product: How you demonstrate mastery of the material;

  • Process: How you gain mastery of the material;

  • Pacing: The rate at which you progress through the material;

  • Content: The material


Furthermore you can differentiate each of these elements by

Furthermore, you can differentiate each of these elements by

  • Readiness level

  • Interest

  • Student choice

  • Learning style…

  • Product;

  • Process;

  • Pacing;

  • Content


Principles of differentiated teaching dt

Principles of Differentiated Teaching (DT)

In differentiated classrooms, teachers begin where students

are, not the front of a curriculum guide. They accept and build

upon the premise that learners differ in important ways…In

differentiated classrooms, teachers provide specific ways for

each individual to learn as deeply as possible and as quickly

and possible, without assuming one student’s roadmap for

learning is identical to anyone else (Tomlinson, 2000:2).


Everyday examples of differentiation

Everyday examples of differentiation

  • Running errands

  • Driving to a destination

  • Meal preparation


Everyday examples of differentiation1

Everyday examples of differentiation

  • Running errands -> a “to do list” helps with pacing;

  • Driving to a destination -> Google directions help with process.

  • Meal preparation -> Choice with regard to the components helps with product.


Summarizing five core principles

Summarizing: Five core principles

  • Know your students, both as members of a category of learners and as individuals.

  • Design instruction around the typical learner, focusing on socio-affective and linguistic needs.

  • Build pathways to learning for all students through the use of Differentiation, formative assessment, and learning strategies.


Core principles cont3

Core principles (cont.)

• In mixed classes take strategic use of HL and L2 learners’ complimentary strengths and needs and adapt Macro (top down) and Micro (bottom up) approaches as needed.

• Design courses and programs that make linguistic and demographic sense. Build maximally homogeneous classes through placement. Accept and embrace diversity in the classroom.


Exit card

Exit Card

  • Describe an “Aha!” moment in this lesson;


Stop here

Stop here


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