The Reformation & Counter-Reformation. (1500s Europe). How did the Renaissance lead to the Protestant Reformation?. (Class document handouts). Document 1 The Medieval R.C. Church. Describe the role of the RCC in the Middle Ages. Document 2 The Renaissance.
(Class document handouts)
Describe the role of the RCC in the Middle Ages.
How did the introduction of new trade around 1300 change Europe?
How did the ideas of the Humanists differ from those of people during the Middle Ages?
How did the Church pay for the religious masterpieces of art created during the Renaissance such as DaVinci’s Last Supper?
What were Gutenberg’s first projects for reproduction?What effect would the availability of books have on society?
What is an indulgence?Why would an everyday person in the early 1500s buy an indulgence from Tetzel?
Why would Martin Luther give credibility to the protest against the abuses of the RCC?How do you think the pope will react to Luther’s actions?
1536 published The Institutes of the Christian Religion
Christians could only reach heaven through faith alone
Predestination – the belief that God had determined before the beginning of time who would gain salvation
Church is led by local council of ministers
Followed strict code of conduct (no fighting, swearing, drunkenness, gambling, card playing or dancing)
Set-up a model community in Geneva, SwitzerlandJohn Calvin (1509-1564)French Priest
After 18 years of marriage, Henry & his wife, Catherine of Aragon (Spain), had only one child, a daughter named Mary
He asked the pope to annul his marriage to Catherine in an effort to remarry and obtain a male heir (common practice during the time since the Catholic Church does not allow divorce)
The pope refused Henry’s request since the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, was Catherine’s nephewHenry VIII (1491-1547)King of England
Why does Henry want a male heir?Predict how Henry will react to the pope’s refusal.
Created the Church of England
Made Henry head of the Church (not the pope)
Kept Catholic doctrines & forms of worship
Reaction in England
Devout Catholics opposed
1535 Thomas More (Utopia) beheaded for treason
1536-1540 Henry closed monasteries & convents and seized Church landHenry’s Supremacy
What was Henry’s goal for all of these changes?Should Henry be considered part of the Reformation?
Archbishop Thomas Cranmer annulled Henry’s
marriage to Catherine in 1532. Catherine is
separated from Mary, banished from court
& 4 years later, died of a broken heart.
Catherine of Aragon
m. 1509 - 1532
Henry marries Anne Boleyn (Catherine’s lady
in waiting) in 1533 & they have a daughter,
Elizabeth. Anne falls out of Henry’s favor after
a still-born son. She is executed on false
evidence for treason in 1536.
m. 1533 - 1536
Eleven days after Anne’s execution, he married
her lady in waiting, Jane Seymour. Jane
gave birth to a boy, Edward, but died after
complications 12 days later.
Jane Seymourm. 1536 - 1537
Thomas Cromwell, his Chief Minister,
persuaded Henry to marry Anne for an alliance
with Germany, as Anne's father was the Duke.
However, Henry didn’t find her attractive
& they divorced amicably.
Anne of Cleves
m. 1540 Jan. - July
Kathryn was a cousin of Anne Boleyn. She was
19 when she married Henry (he was 50). She
was accused of having lovers & was
beheaded in 1542 (with the lovers).
m. 1540 - 1542
Katherine became a companion and nurse for
Henry in old age. She reunited him with
his children, who all came back to court before
his death in 1547.
m. 1543 - 1547
Why did these reforms spark violence in England?
Why didn’t Edward want his sisters to become queen?
Why did Elizabeth adopt the Act of Uniformity?