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Why Replace TCE & Chlorinated Solvents?. Heidi Wilcox Surface Solutions Laboratory (SSL) Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) University of Massachusetts Lowell. NEWMOA September 28 th , 2005. Overview. Who we are & what we do TURI & SSL DOES EVERYONE KNOW US ?

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why replace tce chlorinated solvents

Why Replace TCE & Chlorinated Solvents?

Heidi Wilcox

Surface Solutions Laboratory (SSL)

Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI)

University of Massachusetts Lowell

NEWMOA September 28th, 2005

overview
Overview
  • Who we are & what we do
    • TURI & SSL DOES EVERYONE KNOW US ?
  • Why TCE?
  • About TCE
    • Health
    • Environmental & WE regulations/thresholds
  • EPA/TURI Grant
  • Alternatives
    • Vapor degreasing drop-ins (solvents)
    • Aqueous
  • The Database & how SSL can Help!
toxic use reduction institute
Toxic Use Reduction Institute
  • The Toxics Use Reduction Institute (TURI) researches, tests and promotes pollution prevention and alternatives to toxic chemicals used in Massachusetts industries and communities
  • Came out of TUR Act of early 1990’s
  • Sister agency to OTA
  • NON REGULATORY!!!!!!
the surface solutions lab ssl
The Surface Solutions Lab (SSL)
  • TURI established the Surface Cleaning Laboratory
    • Now known as the Surface Solutions Laboratory (SSL)
    • Designed with the capability to evaluate the effectiveness of different cleaning chemistries and equipment for a variety of substrates and contaminants
  • The goal is to assist industry in the search for safer cleaning processes
    • By developing and promoting safer alternatives to hazardous solvents
      • A special focus on aqueous/semi-aqueous cleaners
the elimination of solvent exposure in surface cleaning
The Elimination of SolventExposure in Surface Cleaning
  • The focus of SSL is to replace hazardous solvents with a special focus on the halogenated hydrocarbons
    • 30% of trials have been to replace halogenated solvents
    • 30% were conducted to replace other hazardous solvents
      • Toluene, MEK, N-methyl-2-pyrollidone, etc.
    • Others were contaminant driven concerns
tce grant turi ota epa
TCE Grant- TURI/OTA EPA
  • Identify small, non-filing users of TCE (chlorinated solvents). Project is targeted at smaller businesses using chlorinated solvents, who may not have direct access to pollution prevention information & resources
  • Focus primarily on cleaning
    • Vapor degreasing, Immersion, Hand wipe & Others
  • Offer technical assistance to reduce or eliminate chlorinated solvent use
  • Offer compliance assistance with MACT standards
  • Disseminate information
why focus on tce
Why Focus on TCE?
  • In 2003 the Mass Toxics Use Reductions Program (TURA) initiated a High Priority Substances Strategy (HPS)
  • It recognized chemicals of greatest concern in the state & aimed to reduce or eliminate them
  • TCE is on the TURA more Hazardous Substances list
  • Chemicals on the HPS were chosen based on their potential fornegative impacts on human health and the environment & their LEVEL of use in Massachusetts
what is tce
What is TCE?
  • A GREAT METAL CLEANER???
  • A FABULOUS VAPOR DEGREASER???
  • AN EXCELLENT SOLVENT???

and...

YES

it is also
It is Also ……
  • A man-made chlorinated solvent = C2HCl3
  • A potentially dangerous health hazard
  • Identified as a high priority substance by TURA
    • Made the list because:
      • It was determined to be especially TOXIC
      • It was used in sufficient quantity in MA
      • Viable alternatives DO exist for most applications
work environment problems
Work Environment Problems
  • Hazardous solvents have been & continue to be used in cleaning applications
  • These chemicals pose a series of health threats or hazards for exposed workers
  • There exists a need to control and/or replace/substitute/eliminate such hazards
    • Control features are not always fool proof
    • Can lead to worker & environmental exposures that will cost money
other issues to consider
Other Issues to Consider
  • Environmental accountability
  • Increasing regulation on toxic solvents
  • Disposal costs & other regulations
  • Community perception

WE ARE HERE TO HELP INDUSTRY THRIVE & PROTECT WORKERS & THE ENVIRONMENT

tce usage patterns
TCE Usage Patterns
  • 80% = Vapor degreasing
    • Fabricated metal parts
    • Some textiles
  • 5% intermediate product in organic chemicals or pharmaceuticals
  • 5% solvent for dry-cleaning, pre and post spotting and chemical extractor
  • 10% exported

(EPA 2004)

sources of tce exposure
Sources of TCE Exposure

Potential Exposure Routes

  • Breathing vapors at work, near a factory that makes or used TCE, off gassing from consumer products (adhesive, paint etc…)
  • Ingestionby eating contaminated food
  • Direct skin contact such as bathing or washing in contaminated water or direct
  • Drinking contaminated water (wastewater)

Potentially 400,000 U.S. workers exposed annually

(TCE fact sheet Lowell Center 2003)

workplace exposure limits
Workplace Exposure Limits
  • OSHA
    • PEL = 100 ppm TWA 8-hr wk shift
    • 200 ppm not to be exceeded during any 15 min. work period
    • 300 ppm for 5 minutes in any 2-hour work period
  • NIOSH
    • REL= 25 ppm TWA 10-hour work shift
  • ACGIH
    • REL=50 ppm TWA 8-hour work shift
    • 100 ppm as STEL (Short Term Exposure Limit)
tce target organs
TCE Target Organs
  • Brain – headache, depression, coma
  • Heart – irregular heartbeat
  • Liver – acute chemical hepatitis cirrhosis
  • Kidney – tubular injury
  • Skin - dermatitis
health effects of tce inhalation exposure handout
Health Effects of TCE Inhalation Exposure (handout)

Breathing Small Amounts

CNS effects

sleepiness

fatigue

headache

confusion

dizziness

poor coordination

loss of concentration

Other effects

lung & skin irritation

Breathing Large Amounts

May Cause;

impaired heart function

unconsciousness

death

Large amounts for long period of time;

(Chronic exposures)

nerve damage

kidney & liver damage

cirrhosis dermatitis
Cirrhosis & Dermatitis

http://www.osh.dol.govt.nz

tce exposure cancer risk
TCE Exposure & Cancer Risk
  • 9th Report on Carcinogens by National Toxicology Program (NTP) determined TCE to be an anticipated Carcinogen
  • International agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) determined TCE to be a probable carcinogen to humans
  • Animal studies -Liver, Kidney, Lung
  • Epi. Studies – Kidney, Liver, Cervix, Lymphatic
tce release patterns
TCE Release Patterns
  • TCE’s major environmental releases are;
    • AIR - emissions from vapor degreasing
    • Water - wastewater from metal finishing, paint and ink formation, electronics, textiles electronics component manufacturing and adhesive and rubber industries.
environmental fate
Environmental Fate
  • Volatile & evaporates quickly into air during cleaning operations. Can break down into phosgene, a known lung irritant
  • Precipitation carries TCE to groundwater. TCE is listed as # 1 groundwatercontaminant & is in over 60% of Super Fund sites.
  • Atmospheric lifetime 1-2 weeks
  • Persistence in soil & ground water is longer & can have a half life up to 10 months
what participants asked for
What Participants Asked For
  • Drop in replacements for TCE in existing vapor degreasing equipment
    • Easiest for them, less time consuming
    • Recently spent money on machinery
how to find drop in replacements for tce
How to Find Drop-in Replacements for TCE?
  • Literature search
  • Look at viability
    • Chemically (VP, FP Surface Tension) (HANDOUT)
    • Environmentally (ODP, GWP, VOC)
    • Evaluate health risks (HANDOUT)
  • Contact Vendors for samples
  • Test chemistries
    • Develop testing matrix – soils & substrates
    • Immersion & Vapor degreasing trials
identified drop in solvents alternatives to chlorinated solvents
Identified 20 alternative drop-in solvent degreasers

Six Classes of Chemicals

Hydrochlorofluorocarbon

Hydrofluorocarbon

Hydrofluroethers

Bromopropane

Volatile Methylsilioxanes

Dichloroethylene

Identified Drop-In Solvents Alternatives to Chlorinated Solvents

*Replaced Solvents

h ydro c hloro f luoro c arbon agc chemicals ak 225
HydroChloroFluoroCarbonAGC Chemicals - AK-225

3 Rows and much less information know then about TCE

h ydro f luoro c arbon dupont vertrel cca mca hd degreaser c flux remover c
HydroFluoroCarbonDuPont -Vertrel CCA, MCA, HD Degreaser C, Flux Remover C

3 Rows and much less information know then about TCE

h ydro f luoro e ther 3m novec hfe 7100 7200 71de
HydroFluoroEther3M - Novec HFE 7100, 7200 & 71DE

3 Rows and much less information know then about TCE

n p ropyl b romide envirotech ensolv ensolv a petroferm lenium gs es kyzen metalnox m6960
N-Propyl BromideEnviroTech - Ensolv, Ensolv A; Petroferm – Lenium GS, ES; Kyzen – Metalnox M6960

3 Rows and much less information know then about TCE

issues with solvent to solvent substitutions
Issues withSolvent to Solvent Substitutions
  • Often deemed viable alternative due to less environmental regulations
  • Does this make them safer for worker?
  • Are we trading one problem for another?
    • nPB for TCE recent research ANA in Toronto (handout)
    • J. Majersik, MD, University of Utah
    • Severe human neurotoxin but less ODP
  • Possible interim step NOT a solution!
what are the better solutions
What ARE the BETTER Solutions?
  • Aqueous Cleaners
    • Can be used diluted
    • Possibility of recycling and reuse of cleaner and water
    • Hopefully eliminates need for air permits due to solvents or hazardous waste disposal permits and the costs associated with both
  • Reformulate Cleaner – Green Chemistry
  • Process change
    • Eliminate contaminant to be cleaned
    • Eliminate cleaning all together
    • Change materials to avoid need for cleaning
ssl testing on aqueous alternatives handout
SSL Testing on Aqueous Alternatives (handout)
  • Worked closely with over 20 companies trying to replace TCE in cleaning
  • A wide range of industries are represented by these companies
    • Aircraft
    • Electronics
    • General Mfr
    • Metal working
    • Optical
    • Plating
slide35

Summary of Aqueous Alternatives Testing to TCE

  • 21 Vendors
  • 44 Products
  • 11 Product Classes
contaminants removed
Conducted over 100 experiments

11 Contaminant types

Abrasives

Buffing Compounds

Coatings

Fluxes

Grease

Inks

Paints

Cutting Fluids

Lubricants

Oils

Waxes

Contaminants Removed
cleaning varies from case to case
Cleaning Varies from Case To Case
  • Process specific & pilot testing on potential replacement cleaning chemicals is recommended
  • Vendor information & alternatives database is available on line at www.cleanersolutions.org/SimpleSolutions/
sooooo
SOOOOO………

IF WE CAN FIND A VIABLE ALTERNATIVE…..

WHY NOT DO IT??

barriers challenges
Barriers & Challenges

More In Depth Information

with Rich Bizzozero (OTA)

tools resources for tur
Tools & Resources for TUR
  • Try it on your own
    • Talk to others industry
    • Use supply chain opportunities
  • Use SSL’s online Simple Solutions Database
    • Obtain a list of alternatives that are substrate, contaminant and equipment specific
  • Call & ask SSL/OTA/DEP for Help
questions
Questions?????

Alternatives Assessment Information

call 978 934 3133

Jason Marshall or Heidi Wilcox

*************************************************

Hands-on Solvent Substitution Workshop

Tomorrow 1:30 – 3:330

7B Everything You Ever Wanted To Know About Surface Cleaning But Were Afraid to Get Your Hands Dirty!

the end
THE END

THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME

Now

Jason Marshall

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