Smart Grids In Italy - Technological Innovation
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Smart Grids In Italy - Technological Innovation and Investment Opportunities Maurizio Delfanti Politecnico di Milano Department of Energy Wednesday, 12 th December 2012. New challenges push for… … re-thinking distribution network (and more…).

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Smart Grids In Italy - Technological Innovation and Investment Opportunities Maurizio Delfanti

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Smart grids in italy technological innovation and investment opportunities maurizio delfanti

Smart Grids In Italy - Technological Innovation and Investment Opportunities

Maurizio Delfanti

Politecnico di Milano

Department of Energy

Wednesday, 12thDecember2012


New challenges push for re thinking distribution network and more

New challenges push for……re-thinking distribution network (and more…)

  • The development of electric systems was based on centralized generation:

    • electricity is produced by plants with huge rated power;

    • the networks have been designed in view of unidirectional energy flows from HV network (transmission) to MV and LV network (distribution).

  • Renewable Energy Sources (RES) deployment is necessary to reduce environmental impact (Kyoto Protocol; GHG, 20-20-20)

  • A high degree of Dispersed Generation (DG) connected to MV and LV networks (only wind farms directly to HV/EHV) impact on the existing power systems

    • New challenges for DSOs  constraints are mainly related to reverse flow, to voltage regulation and to the use of Interface Protection Relays Interface

  • A revision is required:

    • Distribution network management (grids to turn from “passive” into “active”); Distribution network protection and control devices.

    • Transmission network is affected too…


Smart grids in italy technological innovation and investment opportunities maurizio delfanti

The only possible solution...

…the smart grid (different business models...)

  • Smart grid innovative products and services combined with intelligent monitoring, control, communication, and self-healing technologies, that will:

    • allow enhanced levels of reliability and security of supply;

    • facilitate the connection and operation of loads /DG;

    • allow consumers (including EV) to cooperate in system operation.

  • In Italy, the pilot projects (incentive based regulation, R.O. 39/10)will help the Energy Regulators to identify the outputs and to assure that regulations give rise to optimal replicability on large scale of smart grids (output based regulation, DCO 34/11)

  • This is the ideal path from the policy point of view:(learning process, experimental development on a small scale, reflection and extended deployment)  decisions based on knowledge


Smart grids in italy technological innovation and investment opportunities maurizio delfanti

System evolution in Italy:the role of regulation

active grid

DISTR. NETWORKAUTOMATION

LARGE SCALEINTERMITT. GD

DISTRIBUTEDGENERATION

MICROGENERATION

VOLTAGEREGULATION

ELECTRONICMETERS

wind integr.

smart metering

DEMANDAGGREGATION

SMARTAPPLIANCES

ENERGYEFFICIENCY

DEMANDRESPONSE

ELECTRICVEHICLES

storage

DR & EE

V-2-GSERVICES

STORAGESYSTEMS

E-mobility

RECHARGINGINFRASTRUCTURE

AEEG DECISION39/10

AEEG DECISION84/12

AEEG DECISION344/12

AEEG DECISION5/10

AEEG DECISION292/06

AEEG DECISION199/11

System evolution in Italy is mainly driven by Regulation

Many Decisions by AEEG (Regulatory Orders, RO) have been issued on several critical points

AEEG DECISION103/03

AEEG DECISION242/10

ERGEG Smart Grids Consultation Paper (Dec-2009)


Smart grids in italy technological innovation and investment opportunities maurizio delfanti

Keyfeaturesof smart grids

demonstrationprojects (R.O. 39/10)

  • Real grid: A real case in existing MV networks [1-35 kV]: real (local) grid, customers and generators

  • Active grid: the MV network shows a reverse power flow

    • At least 1% of yearly time with energy flow from MV to HV

  • Automated grid: the selected MV network has to be controlled (voltage limits / anti-islanding)

    • Real time control system at MV level

  • Open grid: non-proprietary communication protocols required

    • minimize customer costs; ensure interoperability

  • Politecnico di Milano - Department of Energy – has served as advisor for six of the eight selected initiatives


Smart grids in italy technological innovation and investment opportunities maurizio delfanti

TLC architecture

and innovative functions

  • The Project entails modifications on: SCADA systems, HV/MV substations, secondary substations, MV active/passive users, ICT and final LV customers.

  • The Smart grids innovative functions are:

  • automatic selection of faulty branches

  • innovative IPR with transfer trip

  • voltage control (local/centralized)

  • limitation/regulation of active power

  • monitoring of DG and loads

  • managing recharging infrastructure for electric vehicles

  • enabling demand-response strategies

X

LEVEL 0

CONTROL CENTER

X

X

X

PRIMARY SUBSTATION

LEVEL 1:

Router

REMOTE BUSBAR

Router

ADSL-WIMAXfiber optics

Data

Concentrator

LEVEL 2:

SECONDARY SUBSTATION

LEVEL 3:

INTERFACE USER/DSO

Router

LEVEL 4:

ACTIVE MV USERS

PASSIVE MV USERS

  • The communication infrastructure is based on a broadband “always on” technology with several ICT supports.

  • Communication among all the devices is fully based on IEC 61850 standard.

X

X

Wh

PASSIVE LV USERS

Smart

Meter

X

PROTECTION MONITORING CONTROL DEVICE


The change is so fast

…the change is so fast

  • …the power system evolution in EU is impressive, dramatically fast, and a has led to the development of new scenarios

  • Italy, Germany, France and Spain currently have the largest quantities of installed photovoltaic (ENTSO-E: Italy and Germany are the countries with greater impact)

  • The increase is exponential  50 MW/day (ITA)

  • Forecast for 2015:

    • approximately 23000 MW of PV;

    • Approximately 9600 MW of wind

+45%

wrttarget PAN FV 2020

Wind

PV


And so unpredictable

Central Italy Region MARCHE

HV/MV TRANSFORMED POWER [MW] (source TERNA)

550 MW PV power installed in this region in 1 year (source GSE)

… and so unpredictable


Transmission system operation is affected too automatic frequency disconnection settings of dg

Transmission system operation is affected too:automatic frequency disconnection settings of DG

  • The issue of automatic frequency disconnection of DG plants has recently (July 2011) been brought to the attention of the European Commission

  • In several European countries, connection standards applicable to DG plants have been or are still specifying that such generators automatically disconnect from the grid whenever the system frequency reaches 0.2 or 0.3 Hz deviations from 50.0 Hz.

  • Clear risk of an instantaneous generation loss far in excess of the 3000 MW generation loss “ride-through” design limit for the Continental European system extended blackout.

  • ENTSO-E encouraged the national Energy Regulators to facilitate the timely implementation of remedial actions.


Actions undertaken in italy by the tso since end 2011

Actions undertaken in Italy by the TSO since end 2011

  • New Annexes to the Grid Code dedicated to RES were issued:

  • Annex A.70 (approved by AEEG, R.O. 84/2012/R/eel – 8th Mar 2012);

    • extends some existing HV rules also to the PV plants connected at the MV and LV levels,

    • prescribes the protection schemes to be adopted,

    • includesretrofitting of existing DG units (MV, over 50 kW)

  • Annex A.72 (approved by AEEG, R.O. 344/2012/R/eel – 2nd Aug 2012);

    • all RES fed DG (P>50 kW, MV connected) become curtailable on a TSO command (includes new & existing DG units!)

    • DG_TEL: DG directly connected to Primary Station MV busbarscan be disconnected by DSO in < 30 min

    • DG_PRO: other DG units can be disconnected on advice by producers


Smart grids in italy technological innovation and investment opportunities maurizio delfanti

Actions undertaken in Italy by CEI:

technicalrules for connection

  • MV/LV Connection Standards (enforced by AEEG) to be adopted for the new power plants (CEI 0-16 & CEI 0-21), were duly updated

  • In MV connection rules (already in force) special prescriptions are given to allow the use of ICT between DSO and active users (DG):

    • the IPR with wired thresholds and capable of receiving signals from the DSO (transfer trip) for a reliable operation with much DG;

    • voltage regulation by DG units (local control; signals by DSO;

    • the provision of Active Power Frequency Response LFSM-O;

    • the provision of LVRT & OVRT;

    • the curtailment on a TSO/DSO command of DG power injection by GSM/GPRS signals

  • A Brazilian connection std (NBR 03.082.01:001) uses CEI 0-21 asbasis


Smart grids in italy technological innovation and investment opportunities maurizio delfanti

Pilotprojects on energystoragesystems (ESS)

(R.O. ARG/elt 199/11)

  • Transmission networks (R.O. 288/2012/R/EEL)  the ESS will be:

    • included in the TSO development plan

    • necessary to ensure the injection of electricity from non-programmable RES (in addition to grid reinforcement);

    • combined with dynamic thermal rating of HV lines;

    • sized to mitigate/avoid the RES curtailments.

  • Distribution networks (waiting for a R.O.) the ESS will be:

    • included in smart grid projects;

    • capable of ensuring the injection into the grid of non-programmable RES energy;

    • capable of ensuring the regulation of power flows at HV/MV interface.


Smart grids in italy technological innovation and investment opportunities maurizio delfanti

  • THANKS!

  • Maurizio Delfanti

  • Dipartimento di Energia

  • Politecnico di Milano

  • [email protected]

  • http://www.energia.polimi.it


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