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DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD. POWER POINT PRESENTATIN BY HEERA KUMAR PGT BIOLOGY. LIVING ORGANISMS. WHY DO WE CLASSIFY LIVING ORGANISMS ?. ANS. WE CLASSIFY LIVING ORGANISMS FOR THEIR CONVENIENT STUDY. BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION .

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Diversity in living world

DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD

POWER POINT PRESENTATIN

BY HEERA KUMAR PGT BIOLOGY



Why do we classify living organisms

WHY DO WE CLASSIFY LIVING ORGANISMS ?

ANS. WE CLASSIFY LIVING ORGANISMS FOR THEIR CONVENIENT STUDY


Basis of classification
BASIS OF CLASSIFICATION

THERE ARE DIFFERENT BASIS OF CLASSIFYING LIVING ORGANISMS

  • ON THE BASES OF THEIR HABITAT

  • EUKARYOTIC AND PROKARYOTIC

  • UNICELLULAR AND MULTICELLULAR

  • PHOTOSYNTHETIC AND NON PHOTOSYNTHETIC

  • ON THE BASIS OF FEEDING HABIT

  • ON THE BASIS OF BODY STRUCTURE ETC.


Classification and evolution
CLASSIFICATION AND EVOLUTION

CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGANISMS IS RELATED TO

EVOLUTION

EVOLUTION : THE FAMOUS DEFINITION OF EVOLUTION GIVEN BY CHARLES DARVIN IS

“ DESCENT WITH MODIFICATION “

THAT IS GRADUAL CHANGES FROM SIMPLE TO COMPLEX IN LIVING ORGANISMS


The hierarchy of classification groups
THE HIERARCHY OF CLASSIFICATION GROUPS

GROUPING ORGANISMS IN DIFFERENT CATEGORIES AND SUB CATOGARIES . EACH STEP IS CALLED TAXON . AERRANGING TAXONS ON THE BASIS OF THEIR SIZE IS CALLED HIERARCHY. THESE ARE

KINGDOM

PHYLUM (ANIMALS) / DIVISONS(PLANTS)

CLASS

ORDER

FAMILY

GENUS

SPECIES

SO THE LOWERMOST OR THE BASIC UNIT OF CLASSIFICATION IS SPECIES.


Whittaker s five kingdom classification
WHITTAKER’S FIVE KINGDOM CLASSIFICATION

IN THE PROCESS OF CLASSIFICATION OF ORGANISMS

ROBERT WHITTAKER PROPOSED ORGANISMS BE CLASSIFED INTO FIVE MAJOR GROUPS KNOWN AS FIVE KINGDOM

  • MONERA : ALL PROKARYOTIC UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS . EXAMPLE – BACTERIA

  • PROTISTA : ALL EUKARYOTIC UNICELLULAR ORGANISMS . EXAMPLE – AMOEBA , PARAMOECIUM

  • FUNGI : UNICELLULAR AND MULTICELLULAR NONGREEN PLANTS . EXAMPLE – YEASTS , AGARICUS PENICILLIUM ETC.

  • PLANTAE : ALL GREEN PHOTOSYNTHETIC PLANTS .

  • ANIMALIA : ALL MULTICELLULAR EUKARYOTIC WITHOUT CELLWALL AND HETEROTROPHS


Sub divisions of plantae and animalia
SUB DIVISIONS OF PLANTAE AND ANIMALIA

PLANTAE: FIVE DIVISIONS

THALLOPHYTA

BRYOPHYTA

PTERIDOPHYTA

GYMNOSPERMS AND

ANGIOSPERM


Thallophyta
THALLOPHYTA

PLANTS WITHOUT LEAF , ROOT AND STEM . BODY HAS SIMPLE THALLUS . THE PLANTS IN THIS GROUP ARE COMMONLY CALLED ALGAE .EXAMPLES –SPIROGYEA,

ULOTHRIX, CLADOPHORA ETC.


Bryophyta
BRYOPHYTA

THESE ARE CALLED AMPHIBIANS OF PLANT KINGDOM BECAUSE THEY INHABIT BOTH LAND AND WATER TO COMPLETE LIFE CYCLE.

THE PLANT BODY IS COMMONLY DIFFERENTIATED TO FOR STEM AND LEAF LIKE STRUCTURES BUT THERE IS NO SPECIALISED TISSUE FOR THE CONDUCTION OF WATER AND OTHER SUBSTANCES FROM ONE PART OF PLANT BODY TO ANOTHER .

EXAMPLE – FUNARIA , MARCHANTIA.


Pteridophyta
PTERIDOPHYTA

THE PLANT BODY IS DIFFERENTIATED INTO ROOTS , STEM AND LEAVES AND HAS SPECIALISED TISSUE FOR THE CONDUCTION OF WATER AND OTHER SUBSTANCES FROM ONE PART OF PLANT BODY TO ANOTHER .

EXAMPLE –MARSILEA , FERNS ,HORSE TAILS .


THALLOPHYTES , BRYOPHYTES AND PTERIDOPHYTES HAVE NAKED EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED CRYPTOGAMAE

THE PLANTS WITH WELL DIFFERENTIATED REPRODUCTIVE

TISSUES THAT ULTIMATELY MAKE SEEDS ARE CALLED

PHANEROGAMS

PHANEROGAMS CONSISTS OF TWO GROUPS

GYMNOSPERMS AND

ANGIOSPERMS


Gymnosperms
GYMNOSPERMS EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED

WORD GYMNOSPERMIS MADE FROM TWO GREEK WORDS

GYMNO – MEANS NAKED

SPERMA – MEANS SEED

THAT IS PLANTS BEARING NAKED SEEDS

THE PLANTS ARE USUALLY PERRINIAL, EVERGREEN AND WOODY .

EXAMPLES – PINES LIKE CYCAS , PINUS


Angiosperms
ANGIOSPERMS EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED

THE WORD ANGIOSPERM IS MADE FROM TWO GREEK WORDS

ANGIO – MEANS COVERED

SPERMA – MEANS SEED

THE SEEDS DEVELOP INSIDE AN ORGAN WHICH ULTIMATELY CHANGES INTO FRUIT .

ANGIOSOERMS ARE ALSO CALLED FLOWERING PLANTS

THE STRUCTURE INSIDE SEED IS CALLED COTYLEDON OR SEED LEAF

ANGIOSPERMS ARE DIVIDED IN TWO GROUPS ON THE BASIS OF NUMBER OF COTYLEDONS


MONOCOTYLEDONOUS OR MONOCOTS : EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED PLANTS WITH SEEDS HAVING SINGLE COTYLEDON

DICOTYLEDONOUS OR DICOTS : PLANTS WITH SEED HAVING TWO COTYLEDONS .


Summary

SUMMARY EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED

WITHOUT DIFFERENTIATED

PLANT BODY

HAVE DIFFERENTIATED

PLANT BODY

THALLOPHYTA

WITH VASCULAR TISSUE

WITHOUT SPECIALISED

PLANTS

PRODUCE SEEDS - PHANEROGAMS

DONOT PRODUCE SEEDS

BEAR NAKED SEEDS

BEAR SEEDS INSIDE FRUITS

GYMNOSPERMS

ANGIOSPERMS

DICOT

MONOCOT


ANABENA EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED

BACTERIA

PARAMOECIUM

EUGLENA

AMOEBA


fungi EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED


algae EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED


pinus EMBRYOS THAT ARE CALLED CALLED SPORES . THE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF ALL THESE GROUPS ARE VERY INCONSPICUOUS OR HIDDEN THEIRFOR CALLED

Cone of pinus

Cone of cycas

Stem of cycas

cysas


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