Molecules and cells review
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Molecules and Cells Review. Chapters 1-12. Molecules and Cells (25%) A. Chemistry of Life (7%) 1.Water 2.Organic molecules in organisms 3.Free energy changes 4.Enzymes

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Molecules and Cells Review

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Molecules and cells review

Molecules and Cells Review

Chapters 1-12

Molecules and Cells (25%)

A. Chemistry of Life (7%) 1.Water 2.Organic molecules in organisms 3.Free energy changes 4.Enzymes

B. Cells (10%)1.Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells 2.Membranes 3.Subcellular organization 4.Cell cycle and its regulation

C. Cellular Energetics (8%) 1.Coupled reactions 2.Fermentation and cellular respiration 3.Photosynthesis


Properties of water

Properties of water

  • Cohesion/Adhesion

  • High specific heat

  • High heat of vaporization

  • Lower density of ice

  • Solubility

    • Water ionizes

    • pH = -log[H+]

      • Buffers


Organic macromolecules

Organic Macromolecules

  • Carbs - glucose - glycosidic linkages

    • Energy, structure (glucose, starch, glycogen, cellulose)

  • Lipids - glycerol and fatty acids - esther linkgaes, non-polar or amphipathic

    • Membranes, ENERGY (phospholipids, saturated/unsat)

  • Nucleic Acids - nucleotides (two types - purines, pyrimidines) - phosphodiester linkages -

    • Info storage/transmittance, energy transmit (ATP< NAD+, FAD)

  • Proteins - amino acids - peptide bonds

    • Defense, transport, support, motion, regulation, enzymes

      • 4 levels

        • N-C bond, H-bonds, hydro rxns, subunits


Cell structure

Cell Structure

  • Abiogen

    • First cells (pro, ana, hetero) ~ 2.5 bya

    • Endosym theory

  • All cells have 4 things (DNA, membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome)

  • Prokary

    • Cell walls (peptido), flagella, circular DNA, plasmids

  • Eukary

    • Endomembrane system

      • Nucleus, ER(R/S), Golgi, Vesicles (Transport, Lyso, Peroxi)

    • Double-membrane, DNA containing

      • Mitochondria, Chloroplast

    • Cytoskeleton

      • Microtubules, Intermedfilam, Microfila

      • 9+2 flagella, cilia


Cell membranes plasma fluid mosaic

Cell Membranes (plasma, fluid mosaic)

  • Phospholipid bilayer

  • Cell surface markers (glycopro, glycolip)

  • Transmembrane Proteins

    • Transporters, enzymes, receptors, ID, adhesion, attach to cytoskele

  • Selective Transport

    • Diffuse through channels (ion-gated), facilitated

    • Osmosis aquaporins (hyper, hypo, iso)

      • Pressure, balance (extrusion, isoreg/conform)

    • Endo/exo (phago, pino, receptor-mediated)

    • Active transport

      • Na+/K+ (3 out, 2 in, maintains electrochem for nerves)

    • G proteins send messages (cAMP)

      • Cascades

  • Junctions

    • Tight, anchoring, communicating (gap, plasmodes)


Energy transfer

Energy transfer

  • Light - organic - ATP*

  • Redox

    • Anabolic, catabolic

  • Req enzymes

    • Proteins*, active site, induced fit

      • Influenced by: temp, pH, salinity, concentration, inhibitors (compet/alloster), activators

      • Cofactors (non-proteins)

  • Regulated


Harvesting energy step one synthesis

Harvesting Energy - Step One (-synthesis)

  • Photo or chemo (building = endergonic)

  • Chloroplast -- Outer memb, Inner mem, granum (stacks of thylakoid), stroma filling

    • Light rxns - capture energy - thyla membrane, space

      • Surface of thyla has photosystems (II and I)

      • (ETC) -- Energy received, split water, e- excited, e- transferred (loose energy when pumping H+), energy received, e- transferred to NADP

        • H+ accumulate in thylakoid space, down electro to make ATP

    • Light-indep - fix carbon, stroma

      • Energy from ATP, reducing power from NADPH

      • Rubisco enzyme fixes CO2 to RuBP (every 3 cycles produces 1 G3P which can be used to build glucose, etc

        • When CO2 is low, O2 will bind, breaking down RuBP

          • Stomata was closed to prevent water loss, limits gas exchange

          • Use PEP carboxylase instead

          • C4 in bundle sheath vsmsophyll

          • CAM in PM vs AM


Harvesting energy step two

Harvesting Energy - Step Two

  • Breakdown = exergonic -- ALL CELLS

    • Aerobic vs*. anaero

    • Glycolysis (anero) - cytoplasm

      • 10 rxns that breakdown/rearrange glucose into pyruvate (reqs ATP, produces substrate-level ATP, produces NADH)

      • Phosphofructokinase = regulating enzyme

      • Recycling NADH needs Final e- acceptor - oxygen, lactic acid, alcohol

    • Oxidation of Pyruvate (lose e-) - Intermemb space

      • Pyruvatedehydrogenase = regulating enzyme, CO2 produced, NADH produced, forms Acetyl coA (used lots)

    • Kreb’s/Citric Acid Cycle - matrix

      • remove CO2 and store e- in NAD+ (2x), store e- in FAD, make ATP

    • ETC - matrix and intermembrane space

      • NADH and FADH2accum in matrix

      • Drop off e- at transm proteins, transfer uses energy to pump H+ into intermem space

      • FADH2 2nd

      • Chemiosm. Potential -- H+ only pass through ATP synthase

  • Sugars, proteins, fats!


Cell cycle

Cell Cycle

  • Chromosomes = coiled DNA, chromatin, histones, beads on a string, euchromatin, heterochromatin, Diploid, haploid, homologous, centromere, sister chromatids

  • 5 phases = G1, S, G2, M, C (G0)

    • Mitosis has 4 stages (PMAT)

      • P = condensation, assemble spindle (kinetochore)

      • M = alignment

      • A = pushing and pulling

      • T= reform nucleus

    • *Cytokin= not mitosis, plants vs animals (fungi all in nucleus)

  • Impt signals = Cdks at checkpoints

    • G1/S = external influences (growth factors, nutrition, DNA), irreversible

    • G2/M = correct DNA replication (mitosis promoting factor)

    • Metaphase/Spindle = irrerversible, prepares for anaphase

  • Cancer = uncontrolled cell proliferation

    • Protein p53 protects DNA from damage or initiates apoptosis

    • Oncogenes = cancer, proto-onco prevents

    • Tumor suppressor


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