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C R I M E. C R I M E. An offence against the community punishable by the state. Criminal justice. THE STATE prosecutes those charged with a crime. THE POLICE investigate a crime apprehend suspects detain them in custody

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C r i m e
C R I M E

  • Anoffenceagainstthecommunitypunishablebythe state


Criminal justice
Criminaljustice

  • THE STATE

  • prosecutesthose

    chargedwith a crime

  • THE POLICE

  • investigate a crime

  • apprehendsuspects

  • detainthemincustody

  • send a file ofthecase to CPS (CrownProsecution Service)


Initiation of criminal proceedings
Initiationofcriminalproceedings

by

The serving of a summons setting out the offence and requiring the accused to attend court

A warrant of arrest issued by a Magistrates’ Court (in more serious cases)


Jurisdiction of courts
Jurisdictionof courts

WhichcourtsinEnglandandWalesexercisecriminaljurisdiction?


Categories of criminal offence
Categoriesofcriminaloffence

  • INDICTABLE

  • seriouscrimes (e.g.murder)

  • triable on INDICTMENT

  • CROWN COURT

  • (judgeandjury)

SUMMARY

minorcrimes

MAGISTRATES’ COURT

(without a jury)

CRIMINAL OFFENCES

*INDICTMENT (in’daitm∂nt)– a writtenaccusationofcrimes (containstheallegedoffences, supportedbyfacts)


Categories of criminal offence before the criminal law act 1967
CategoriesofcriminaloffencebeforetheCriminalLawAct 1967

TREASON

the most seriouscrimeagainstthe state

(punishablebydeath)

FELONY

more seriouscrimes

(murder, manslaughter, rape, arson, burglary, theft, bigamyetc.)

MISDEMEANOR

less serious crimes

(minor assaults, conspiracy, perjury, blasphemy, fraud, road traffic offences)

INDICTABLE OFFENCES


New classification of indictable offences
New classificationof INDICTABLE OFFENCES


Classificationaccording to the

TARGET

CRIMES

AGAINST theAGAINSTthe

STATEandPERSON

PUBLIC PEACE

and ORDER

AGAINST

PROPERTY


Criminal court proceedings
Criminal court proceedings

Adversarial system of justice

(each side collects and presents their own evidence and attacks their opponent’s cross examination)

PROSECUTION DEFENCE

(prosecutor, (defendant

prosecuting attorney) defence counsel)

(has to prove beyond reasonable (the accused is presumed innocent

doubt that the accused is guilty) until proved to be guilty

- can PLEAD GUILTY or NOT GUILTY)


EXEMPTIONS

fromcriminalliability


Drunkenness or intoxication
DRUNKENNESS or INTOXICATION

DEFENCE only if

induced by others, without fault on the part of the accused;

B) produces temporary insanity or negates the

specific degree of intent required by the

offence charges


Essential expressions
Essentialexpressions

  • to try sb for sth(to examine evidence in the court of law and decide if sb is guilty or innocent)

  • triable; a trial

  • indictment, indictable

  • summary offences

  • treason

  • felony

  • misdemeanor

  • Criminal Law Act

  • to charge with an offence,

    a charge of murder

  • to prove –proved –proved

    proven

  • to prosecute vs. to defend

  • prosecution vs. defence

  • prosecutor vs. defendant (theaccused)

  • criminalliability

  • beyondresonabledoubt

  • to accuse

  • to convict

  • a verdict

  • a sentence

  • to exempt; anexemption

  • drunkenness or intoxication


Vocabulary exercise i
Vocabularyexercise I

  • Completethedefinitions.

    1. a …………. ………… ………… - a court documentauthorisingthe police to detainsomeone

    2. an …………….. – a writtenstatementwithdetailsofthecrimessomeone is chargedwith

    3. a ……………. – a formalorder to attend court


Vocabulary exercise i answer key
Vocabularyexercise I – Answerkey

  • warrantofarrest

  • indictment

  • summons


Vocabulary exercise ii
Vocabularyexercise II

criminaldoubt sentence indictable severe plearealisticguilty

reasonabledefenceproceedingscostsreducedprospectsoffencespenalties

  • Make word combinationsofthewordsinthe box and use appropriateones to completethesentencesbelow.

    1 TheCrownProsecutorconsiderswhetherthere’s sufficientevidence to provide a …………….... ………………. ofconviction.

    2. Thereshouldbe no convictionwithoutproofbeyond ….. ……. .

    3. TheCrown Court alwayshears ……......…… …………….… such as manslaughter.

    4. Insentencingseriouscrimes, courtscanimpose … …… …… ….. .

    5. At theendof a trial, adefendantmaybeordered to pay a contributiontowards ……………….. ……………….. .


Vocabulary exercise ii answer key
Vocabularyexercise II – Answerkey

1 TheCrownProsecutorconsiderswhetherthere’s sufficientevidence to provide a realisticprospectsofconviction.

2. Thereshouldbe no convictionwithoutproofbeyondreasonabledoubt.

3. TheCrown Court alwayshearsindictableoffencessuch as manslaughter.

4. Insentencingseriouscrimes, courtscanimposesevere penalties.

5. At theendof a trial, adefendantmaybeordered to pay a contributiontowardsdefencecosts.


Vocabulary exercise iii
Vocabularyexercise III

aquitted sentence/penaltydetainedbail

appearschargeapprehend

Replacetheunderlinedwordsandphraseswith alternative wordsandphrasesfromthe box.

Bailmayberefusedandthedefendantmaybe (1) heldin police custody.

Alternatively, thedefendantmaybe (2) foundnotguiltybythe court anddischarged.

Onceproceedingshavebeeninitiated, thedefendant (3) comesbeforethe court.

The police formally (4) accusethesuspectinthe police station.

IftheoffenderpleadsguiltyintheMagistrates’ Court, thecourtimposes a(5) punishment.

The police investigate a seriousoffenceand (6) arrest a suspect.

Thesuspectmayask for (7) releasefromcustodybeforetrial.


Vocabulary exercise iii answer key
Vocabularyexercise III – Answerkey

detained

acquitted

appears

charge

sentence/penalty

bail


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