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Social Psychology. Social Psychology is a broad field devoted to studying:. how people relate to each other the development and expression of attitudes people’s attributions about their own behavior and that of others

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how people relate to each other

the development and expression of attitudes

people’s attributions about their own behavior and that of others

the reasons why people engage in both prosocial and antisocial behavior

how the presence and actions of others influences the way people behave


An attitude is a set of beliefs and feelings

One reason that attitudes are difficult to change is due to the Cognitive Dissonance Theory.

People are motivated to have consistent attitudes and behaviors, and when they do not, they experience unpleasant mental tension (dissonance).


Social thinking
Social Thinking

  • Attribution Theory

    • tendency to give a causal explanation for someone’s behavior, often by crediting either

  • the situation or…

  • the person’s disposition


Social thinking1
Social Thinking

  • Fundamental Attribution Error

    • when explaining another’s behavior, we tend to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition


Social thinking2

Tolerant reaction

(proceed cautiously, allow

driver a wide berth)

Situational attribution

“Maybe that driver is ill.”

Negative behavior

Unfavorable reaction

(Speed up and race past the

other driver, craning to give

them a dirty look)

Dispositional attribution

“Crazy driver!”

Social Thinking

  • How we explain someone’s behavior affects how we react to it


Attribution
Attribution

Interestingly, people do more the opposite when attributing successes or failures to themselves (we blame the situation more than ourselves).


Social thinking3

Internal

attitudes

External

influences

Behavior

Social Thinking

  • Our behavior is affected by our inner attitudes as well as by external social influences


Jesse tells you that he got a perfect score on his psychology test
Jesse tells you that he got a perfect score on his psychology test ……

Because Jesse is very good at psychology

Because the psychology test was easy

Jesse has always been good at psychology

Jesse just studied a lot for this particular psychology test

Mr. Baker is an easy psychology teacher

Mr. Baker is a tough psychology teacher who just happened to give one easy test


Social thinking some concepts
Social Thinking – Some Concepts psychology test ……

  • Our Attitudes often direct our behavior but sometimes behavior shapes our attitudes

  • Foot-in-the-Door Phenomenon

    • tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request

    • “Doing Becomes Believing”


    Group pressure
    Group Pressure psychology test ……

    • Social Influence..


    Social influence
    Social Influence psychology test ……

    • Normative Social Influence

      • influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval

    • Leads to……Conformity

      • adjusting one’s behavior or thinking to coincide with a group standard


    Social influence concepts
    Social Influence - concepts psychology test ……

    • Informational Social Influence

      • influence resulting from one’s willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality

    • …Leads To Norms

      • an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior

      • prescribes “proper” behavior


    Social influence1

    3 psychology test ……

    1

    2

    Standard lines

    Comparison lines

    Social Influence

    Asch Conformity Experiment

    click above for a clip!


    Social influence2

    50 psychology test ……

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Percentage of

    conformity

    to confederates’

    wrong answers

    Difficult judgments

    Easy judgments

    High

    Low

    Importance

    Slide 1

    Slide 2

    Social Influence

    • Participants judged which person in Slide 2 was the same as the person in Slide 1


    Obedience
    Obedience psychology test ……

    • Stanley Milgram: People conform, but will they simply obey others?

    65% of Milgram’s “teachers” did!


    A shocking experiment
    A “Shocking Experiment” psychology test ……

    • Over 400 volts!!


    Social influence3

    That’s Almost 70%! psychology test ……

    100

    90

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Percentage

    of subjects

    who obeyed

    experimenter

    The majority of

    subjects continued

    to obey to the end

    Slight

    (15-60)

    Moderate

    (75-120)

    Strong

    (135-180)

    Very

    strong

    (195-240)

    Intense

    (255-300)

    Extreme

    intensity

    (315-360)

    Danger

    severe

    (375-420)

    XXX

    (435-450)

    Shock levels in volts

    Social Influence

    • Milgram’s experiment


    Obedience is higher when
    Obedience is higher when… psychology test ……

    • Person giving the orders is perceived as a legit Authority figure. (prof., cop, etc)

    • “orderer” supported by a prestigious institute (Yale, Government, etc)

    • Victim is “depersonalized” or distant (no name, in another room, etc)

    • No role models for defiance


    Group interaction
    Group Interaction psychology test ……


    Social influence somebody s watching me
    Social Influence: psychology test ……somebody’s watching me…

    • Social Impairment

    • People tend to perform WORSE on difficult or new tasks in the presence of others

    • Social Facilitation

      • People tend to perform simple/well-learned tasks BETTER in the presence of others


    Social facilitation

    Home Advantage in Major Team Sports psychology test ……

    Sport Games Home Team

    Studied Winning

    Percentage

    Baseball 23,034 53.5%

    Football 2,592 57.3

    Ice hockey 4,322 61.1

    Basketball 13,596 64.4

    Soccer 37,202 69.0

    Social Facilitation


    Social influence somebody s helping me
    Social Influence: psychology test ……somebody’s helping me…

    • Social Loafing

      • tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable


    Deindividuation
    Deindividuation psychology test ……

    • The loss of self awareness and self restrain occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity


    Social relations

    90 psychology test ……

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Percentage

    attempting

    to help

    1 2 3 4

    Number of others

    presumed available to help

    Social Relations

    • Bystander Effect

      • tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present


    Social influence4
    Social Influence psychology test ……

    Group Polarization

    enhancement of a group’s prevailing attitudes through discussion within the group (like AA or KKK) – Yeah! I Agree!


    Social influence5

    +4 psychology test ……

    +3

    +2

    +1

    0

    -1

    -2

    -3

    -4

    High

    High-prejudice

    groups

    Prejudice

    Low-prejudice

    groups

    Low

    Before discussion

    After discussion

    Social Influence

    • If a group is like-minded, discussion strengthens its prevailing opinions


    • Groupthink psychology test ……

      • the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides realistic appraisal of alternatives (like shuttle disaster or bay of pigs) – Who am I to “rock the boat”? I just want to get out of this meeting…


    The tendency for people to overestimate the number of people who agree with them is called the false consensus effect.I thought everyone was against the death penalty…


    IE. If Brianna hates Psychology, she assumes that most people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Shavanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.


    Social influence6
    Social Influence people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Shavanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.

    Percentage agreeing

    “The activities of married women

    are best confined to home and family”

    • Gender Role

      • a set of expected behaviors for males and for females

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Percentage

    Men

    Women

    1967 ‘71 ‘75 ‘79 ‘83 ‘87 ‘91 ‘95

    Year


    Social relations why do we treat each other differently
    Social Relations – why do we treat each other differently? people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Shavanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.

    • Prejudice

      • an unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members

      • involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action

    • Stereotype

      • a generalized (often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people


    Social influences
    Social Influences people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Shavanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.

    • Culture

      • enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people

      • transmitted from one generation to the next

    • Personal Space

      • buffer zone we like to

        maintain around our bodies


    Social relations why prejudice social bias
    Social Relations – why prejudice & social bias? people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Shavanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.

    • Ingroup Bias

      • tendency to favor one’s own group

    • Scapegoat Theory

      • theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame

    • Just-World Phenomenon

      • tendency of people to believe the world is just

      • people get what they deserve and deserve what they get


    Social relations1

    90 people also find it boring, tedious, and utterly useless as well. If Shavanna likes pizza, she assumes that because it’s so good that everyone must like it too. She’s shocked to find people who don’t like it as much as she does.

    80

    70

    60

    50

    40

    30

    20

    10

    0

    Would you vote for

    a woman president?

    Do whites have a right

    to keep minorities out of

    their neighborhoods?

    1936 1945 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995

    Year

    Social Relations

    • Americans today express much less racial and gender prejudice

    Percentage

    answering yes


    Preconceived ideas can affect the way someone acts towards another person.

    • Our expectations of behavior can be influenced as well. This is called the self-fulfilling prophecy.


    Social relations2
    Social Relations another person.

    • Aggression

      • any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy

    • Frustration-Aggression Principle

      • principle that frustration – the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal – creates anger, which can generate aggression


    Why are we aggressive
    Why are we aggressive? another person.

    • Genetics – Some people are born to be aggresive

    • Neural and Biological – Your neural system facilitates aggression – chemicals in your blood stream can change aggression..

    • What happens if the frontal lobes get damaged?


    Social relations3

    8.0 another person.

    7.5

    7.0

    6.5

    6.0

    Murders

    and rapes

    per day in

    Houston, Texas

    40-68 69-78 79-85 86-91 92-99

    Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit

    Social Relations

    • Is there a CORRELATION BETWEEN WEATHER AND AGGRESSION?


    Social relations4
    Social Relations another person.

    • Conflict

      • perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas

    • Social Trap

      • a situation in which the conflicting parties, pursuing their self-interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior

    • (overfishing, near destruction of the buffalo, rainforest logging)


    Social relations conflict reduction
    Social Relations – conflict reduction another person.

    • Social Exchange Theory

      • the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, the aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs

    • Superordinate Goals

      • shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation


    Social relations conflict reduction among nations
    Social Relations – conflict reduction among nations another person.

    • Graduated and Reciprocated Initiatives in Tension-reduction (GRIT)

      • a strategy designed to decrease international tensions

        • one side announces recognition of mutual interests and initiates a small conciliatory act

        • opens door for reciprocation by other party


    Social relations what attracts us to others
    Social Relations- What another person.attracts us to others?

    • Proximity

      • mere exposure effect- repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them

    • Physical Attractiveness

      • youthfulness may be associated with health and fertility

    • Similarity

      • friends share common attitudes, beliefs, interests


    Attractiveness
    Attractiveness another person.

    • Worldwide, men prefer youth and health, women prefer resources and social status


    Social relations5
    Social Relations another person.

    • Passionate Love

      • an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another

      • usually present at the beginning of a love relationship

    • Companionate Love

      • deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined


    The key to lasting and satisfying relationships
    The key to lasting and satisfying relationships another person.

    • Equity

      • a condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it

    • Self-disclosure

      • revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others

    • Altruism

      • unselfish regard for the welfare of others


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