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The Short Story. Crossroads 9. In this unit we will explore short stories and the elements of fiction. Reading the stories will include the following tasks: Complete the vocabulary (you will be tested on spelling, definitions, and application). Complete the comprehension questions.

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crossroads 9
Crossroads 9
  • In this unit we will explore short stories and the elements of fiction.

Reading the stories will include the following tasks:

  • Complete the vocabulary (you will be tested on spelling, definitions, and application).
  • Complete the comprehension questions.
  • Complete the writing assignment.
what is a short story
What is a Short Story?

Write your own definition of both a short story and a novel. Below your definitions, brainstorm about short stories – any words you have learned connected to short stories, titles of stories, authors, etc.

NOTE: Do not write “A story that is short”! Use what you know about short stories and novels in the past.

what is a short story1
What is a Short Story?
  • Short story refers to a work of fiction that is usually written in prose.
  • Fiction is anything imaginatively invented, a feigned existence, event, or state of things.
  • Prose is composed of full

sentences, usually divided

into paragraphs – it usually

resembles everyday speech.

  • A short story is a story that is under

40,000 words in length and can be read in a

single sitting.

vocabulary
Vocabulary

genre – a class or category having a particular form, technique, content, etc. E.g. poetry, novels, fantasy, science fiction

prose – the ordinary form of spoken or written language, as distinguished from poetry or verse

fiction – the class of literature comprising works of imaginative narration

vocabulary1
Vocabulary
  • Plot- events in a story.
  • Characters- people in a story.
  • Setting- time and place of the story.
  • Point of View- who is telling the story.
  • Theme- The theme of a story represents what the protagonist (main character) and/or reader learns about life. It is the “message” that the author is sending through the story.
grammar break
Grammar Break!
  • Take out your independent reading novel.
  • Find 5 examples of each of the following:
      • Nouns
      • Verbs
      • Adjectives
      • Adverbs

(Definitions on the next page).

language parts of speech review
Language – Parts of Speech Review

Noun – a person, place, thing, or idea

Adjective – a word that describes a noun; describes colour, quantity, etc.

Verb – an action word

Adverb – a word that describes a verb; usually ends in “-ly” (e.g. quickly, carefully)

the short story genre
The Short Story

The oldest form of literature.

Prose fiction.

A distinct genre (like poetry, novels, plays).

Every word counts! There is a strong focus on word choice, because this is how the author prunes and polishes the piece to meet his/her objective(s).

The Short Story Genre
thank you ma am p 72 vocabulary
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72) - Vocabulary

Find the definition. Write a sentence. Practice Spelling.

  • permit
  • ashamed
  • ought
  • icebox
  • pocketbook
thank you ma am p 72 comprehension questions
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72) - Comprehension Questions

8. Put the following events in order:

__The woman drags the boy up the street.

__The boy washes his face.

__The woman turns the boy loose.

__The boy snatches the woman’s purse.

__The boy thanks the woman.

__The woman grabs the boy by his shirt front.

__The woman gives the boy money to buy a pair of blue suede shoes.

__The woman cooks dinner.

__The boy offers to go to the store.

__The woman tells the boy about her job in a hotel beauty shop.

thank you ma am p 72 comprehension questions1
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72) - Comprehension Questions
  • Why do you think Mrs. Jones takes Roger home with her instead of calling the police?
  • After she releases Roger, Mrs. Jones leaves her door open and the purse on the bed. Why does she do this? Why doesn’t Roger take the purse and run?
  • How does Mrs. Jones show that she does not want to embarrass Roger or hurt his feelings?
  • Why do you think Mrs. Jones gives Roger the ten dollars? What do you think Roger has learned from Mrs. Jones?
slide13
5. How does Langston Hughes make Mrs. Jones a true-to-life character?

6. While he is in Mrs. Jones’ apartment, Roger has an opportunity to steal her purse and run, but he does not do so. Is his behaviour consistent? Give reasons for your answer.

7. Why does Mrs. Jones take Roger into her home? Why does she cook for him and give him money? Are her motives believable? Give reasons for your answer.

purpose and audience
Purpose and Audience

The purpose of persuasive writing is to discuss and/or debate ideas by developing an argument to convince the reader to agree with the writer’s argument.

An understanding of the audience for the piece will impact upon the choice of details to support the main idea, as well as the organization and word choice.

organization of persuasive writing
Organization of Persuasive Writing

A persuasive piece will follow this basic structure:

Opening statement – provides an overview of the topic and states the writer’s position.

Arguments and Reasons – provides three or more arguments or assertions that have supporting statements or details drawn from facts or personal experience. The arguments also sometimes identify other points of view and counter-arguments.

Conclusion – includes a statement to reinforce or summarize the position.

special features of persuasive writing
Special Features of Persuasive Writing
  • Employs persuasive devices (e.g. quotes from experts/text, examples, anecdotes [stories], irony, wit, humour).
  • Uses linking words and phrases (e.g. however, because, also).
  • Uses present tense primarily; speaks directly to the reader.
  • Uses first person (e.g. I, we).
  • Uses persuasive adjectives and adverbs (e.g. most, must, strongly).
thank you ma am p 72 writing assignment
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72)Writing Assignment

In 3 persuasive paragraphs, respond to the following question:

Imagine you are Roger and you have just gotten in trouble at school. Your principal threatens to expel you unless you can give him a good reason not to. Since meeting Mrs. Jones you’ve learned a lot and know you have to stay in school. Write a letter (as though you were Roger) convincing your principal not to expel you.

thank you ma am p 72 writing assignment1
Thank You Ma’am (p. 72)Writing Assignment
  • In groups of 4: each person will take turns reading your letters aloud.
  • Then, pass around the letters and make one positive comment and one thing they can work on.
  • Next, pick one letter to be read to the class.
  • Finally, make any changes to the draft that you feel could be made at this point and put the letter in your journal.
acceptance p 33 vocabulary and questions
Acceptance (p. 33) – Vocabulary and questions

Find the definition. Write a sentence.

  • acceptance
  • uncertainly
  • exposed
  • library
  • tensed
  • Sneer
  • Responding to the Story page 34 #1 (a-e).
  • Write a one page continuation of the story in your journal.
acceptance p 33 comprehension questions
Acceptance (p. 33) - Comprehension Questions
  • Responding to the Story page 34 #1 (a-e).

2.Write a one page continuation of the story in your journal.

acceptance p 33 writing assignment
Acceptance (p. 33)Writing Assignment

In a persuasive poster, respond to the Media Maker question on page 34.

using the dictionary finnigan
Using the DictionaryFinnigan

From Building English Skills

  • Complete Exercises A (see pages 26-30) & B (pp 31-33) and C (use a dictionary).
  • Complete Exercises A page 35 (ONLY DO 3 SENTENCES FOR EACH WORD –NOT 5)
  • Complete Exercises C, D on page 34-36.
using the dictionary test
Using the Dictionary TEST

From Building English Skills

  • Complete Exercises
  • A PAGE 40
  • C PAGE 40 (1,2,3)
  • D PAGE 41 (ODDS – 1,3,5,7,9)
  • E PAGE 41 (#1-5)
purpose why short stories
PURPOSE: Why Short Stories?

There are principally THREE reasons for reading/writing short stories:

    • To entertain
  • The first purpose of a short story is to enjoy it. Authors want you to enjoy a short story (and usually to pay money for it).
why short stories
Why Short Stories?

2. To teach

  • Often, the author has a particular point of view on an issue that he/she wants to share. The story is the medium the author uses to convey the message.

This is the stage of analysis at which understanding symbol, meaning, and other literary devices is important.

why short stories1
Why Short Stories?

3. To raise questions

  • Often, a specific “message” from the author is not clear; other times, there is no “message” from the author per se.

Rather, the author might be simply trying to get the reader to think about things in a new way, or to question things that the reader might have already made up his/her mind about.

why short stories2
Why Short Stories?

1. To entertain.

2. To teach.

3. To raise questions.

It is important to remember that each short story can have two or all three purposes at the same time.

on the sidewalk bleeding p 35 vocabulary
On the Sidewalk Bleeding (p. 35) - Vocabulary

Find the definition. Write a sentence. Practice Spelling.

  • delicately
  • excruciating
  • fierce
  • steadily
  • knowledge
on the sidewalk bleeding p 35 comprehension questions
On the Sidewalk Bleeding (p. 35) -Comprehension Questions
  • Responding to the Story page 43 #1 (a-d).
on the sidewalk bleeding p 43 writing assignment
On the Sidewalk Bleeding (p. 43)Writing Assignment
  • Create a Newspaper Article and put it in your writing folder.
the five elements of a short story
The Five Elements of a Short Story
  • Plot
  • Character
  • Setting
  • Atmosphere
  • Style
vocabulary2
Vocabulary

Plot – the arrangement of incidents or events in a story; “what happens” in the story.

Plot line – a way of visually demonstrating a story’s structure by plotting incidents along a line; plot lines can vary for different forms of fiction

plot of a short story1
Plot of a Short Story

4

5

6

3

crises

2

1

plot of a short story2
Plot of a Short Story
  • Exposition (or Opening Situation) – The reader is informed of the setting and is introduced to the main characters.
  • Inciting Force (or Complication) – A conflict is usually established between characters. This conflict “gets things started”.
  • Rising Action – The conflict between characters develops and becomes more pronounced. Involves a series of crises (conflicts).
plot of a short story3
Plot of a Short Story

4. Climax – The moment of greatest suspense; a point of conflict that will lead to the resolution of the main plot.

5. Falling Action – The result of the outcome of the climactic conflict. Can involve a crisis, but in a short story is usually very short.

6. Denouement (or Resolution, or Final Outcome) – The writer attempts to have the reader leave the story satisfied.

assignment
Assignment –

In your notebook, draw a plot line.

Label the plotline with numbers and dots for the crises.

Then, using the numbers as a “key” or guide, explain the plot of “On the Sidewalk Bleeding”.

plot of on the sidewalk bleeding
Plot of “On the Sidewalk Bleeding”
  • Exposition (or Opening Situation) –
  • Inciting Force (or Complication) –
  • Rising Action –
plot of on the sidewalk bleeding1
Plot of “On the Sidewalk Bleeding”

4. Climax –

5. Falling Action –

6. Denouement (or Resolution, or Final Outcome) –

Has the protagonist changed during the thirty-one minutes of the story?

kath and mouse p 62 vocabulary
Kath and Mouse (p. 62) - Vocabulary

Find the definition. Write a sentence. Practice Spelling.

  • skitter
  • instrument
  • afterwards
  • oboe
  • Bob Dylan
kath and mouse p 62 comprehension questions and writing assignment
Kath and Mouse (p. 62) –Comprehension Questions and Writing Assignment
  • Responding to the Story page 67 #1 (a-d).
  • Reading Using Conflict (68)
  • Story Craft Narrative Point of View (69)
kath and mouse p 62 comprehension questions and writing assignment1
Kath and Mouse (p. 62) –Comprehension Questions and Writing Assignment
  • Responding to the Story page 67 #1 (a-d).
  • Reading Using Conflict (68)
  • Story Craft Narrative Point of View (69)
  • Page 68: Create a Sequel: 2 pages double space, MLA
kath and mouse p 62 writing assignment
Kath and Mouse (p. 62) Writing Assignment

1. Writer’s Desk Create a Sequel (68)

homework voice write a friendly letter
Homework:VOICE – Write a Friendly Letter

Take on the role of Kate and write a letter home to her brother, Matt, or to another family member.

Be sure to stay true to the character – for example, Kate probably wouldn’t tell her brother about the Moon Maiden, but she might tell her parents or friends. She would use a different tone with her dad than she would with her best friend, too!

plot and conflict1
Plot and Conflict

Our lives are full of conflict. Likewise, the lives of characters are full of conflict.

Think of a story as really a look at a conflict and its resolution (for better or worse!).

There is no story without conflict.

plot and conflict2
Plot and Conflict

Really, the plot of a story is literally ALL about conflict.

The inciting force and the crises (in the rising action phase), as well as the climax are often conflicts of some sort.

(Note: There can be minor conflicts in the falling action, but in a short story these are rare.)

two main types of conflict
Two Main Types of Conflict

There are two main types of conflict:

  • Psychological Conflict
  • Physical Conflict
categories of conflict
Categories of Conflict

Conflict can be categorized as:

Internal:

Person vs. Herself/Himself

OR

External:

Person vs. Person

Person vs. Nature

Person vs. Society

Person vs. the Unknown

Person vs. the Supernatural

Person vs. Time

a sunrise on the veld p 77 vocabulary
A Sunrise on the Veld (p. 77) - Vocabulary

Find the definition. Write a sentence. Practice Spelling.

  • veld
  • vigilant
  • lintel
  • eternity
  • exhilarated
  • skoen--Southern

African walking shoes (79)

7) Vlei - In geography of South Africa a vlei is a shallow seasonal or intermittent lake

a sunrise on the veld p 77 comprehension questions
A Sunrise on the Veld (p. 77) -Comprehension Questions
  • Responding to the Story page 85 #1 (a-c).
  • Analyse the Theme (85)
a sunrise on the veld p 77
A Sunrise on the Veld (p. 77)
  • Critical Thinking: All effective stories attempt to teach the reader or the viewer lessons about life through what the characters learn about themselves.
  • In small groups, use a chart to compare the lessons learned by the boy in “Sunrise” and those learned by teenage protagonists in: “Thank You Ma’am”, “On the Sidewalk…”, and “Kath and Mouse”, and “Acceptance”.
a sunrise on the veld p 77 writing assignment
A Sunrise on the Veld (p. 77) - Writing Assignment

The author is able to paint a picture of the setting (time and place) flawlessly so that the reader can imagine the world in which the story is set. Using words and phrases from the story, write a poem that expresses the setting. Then draw or find an illustration that captures the spirit of your poem.

setting notes
Setting - Notes

Setting – the physical “backdrop” of the story; where (place) and when (time) the story takes place.

When looking at setting, you must try to be as specific as possible, but describe where the entire story takes place.

For example, “A modern-day city,” “Jerusalem in the Middle Ages,” and “Anchorage, Alaska c. 1950s” are settings; “night-time on a street, then in a car, then a store” is not.

Generally, the author will leave it to the reader to infer the setting of the story, to some extent.

the leaving p 106 vocabulary
“The Leaving”(p. 106) - Vocabulary

Find the definition. Write a sentence. Practice Spelling.

  • speculation
  • parlour
  • austere
  • uncompromising
  • The Feminine Mystique
the leaving p 106
“The Leaving” (p. 106)
  • Complete “Responding to the story” 1. a.-d. on p. 117.
  • Analyse Setting page 118 (below)
  • Letter page 118

ANALYSE SETTING:

1. Write a paragraph describing the setting of the story. You might have to infer details about the setting based upon “clues” in the narrative.

2. How is the setting of this story significant?

3. How does understanding where and when the story takes place help you understand the characters?

4. Do you think the events in this story

could take place in a modern and urban

setting? Explain why or why not.

the leaving p 106 writing assignment mla
“The Leaving”(p. 106) – Writing Assignment MLA

Write a descriptive paragraph that describes the setting of some part of the farm in the story.

Remember, a descriptive paragraph describes and makes your reader see, hear, smell, and feel what you are describing.

Use specifically-chosen nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs to create the description. Add details!

character1

Character

Characterization

character characterization
Character: Characterization
  • Characters are the “people” of the story.
  • Characterization is of two main types:
    • Direct characterization occurs when the author (through narration) explicitly tells the reader what a particular character is like.
    • Indirect characterization is more subtle. The author gives certain information and lets the reader draw his/her own conclusions regarding the character.
slide67
Indirect characterization is achieved using the following methods:
  • The character’s name.
  • The character’s appearance.
  • What the character says (or thinks).
  • What the character does.
  • What others say or think about the character, including other characters or the narrator.
slide68
To analyze a character, look at the character’s dialogue, appearance, actions, environment, character type, and motivation.
  • Also note if there are ironies or discrepancies, i.e. does the character say he believes one thing, but act the opposite way? Do other characters say things about him that you do not see as true?
the ron clark story
The Ron Clark Story

Choose two characters from the film.

  • Complete the Indirect Characterization list below by writing three points for each bullet point:

- The character’s name.

    • The character’s appearance.
    • What the character says

(or thinks).

    • What the character does.
    • What others say or think

about the character, including

other characters or the narrator.

the ron clark story writing assignment
The Ron Clark StoryWriting Assignment
  • Write a paragraph answering the following for each character:
  • Write a brief description

of the character. Look at

the character’s dialogue,

appearance, actions,

environment, character type,

and motivation.

short story review
Short Story Review

The stories:

Who (characters and point of view)

What happened?

When and Where did it happen (setting)

How was it resolved?

vocabulary to study
Genre

Prose

Fiction

Plot

Characters

Setting

Point of view

Theme

Noun

Adjective

Verb

Adverb

Conflict

Vocabulary to Study
notes to study
Notes to Study
  • Persuasive Writing
  • What is a Short Story?
  • Purpose of a Short Story (3 THINGS)
  • Elements of Fiction
  • Plot Line
  • Conflict
  • Characterization
and the lucky winner is

“And the Lucky Winner Is…”

Crossroads 9 pp. 273-287

Complete “Responding to the story”

1. b.-d. on p. 286.

slide75

Friday: Setting“And the Lucky Winner Is…” Crossroads 9 pp. 273-287

1. Find evidence of when in the future this story takes place, and what the future is like. List 3 of the phrases in the story that show this.

2. Write a descriptive paragraph that describes the futuristic setting the author is presenting.

3. How is the future different from the present, according to the author? Consider the following:

a. What changes seem exciting or good?

b. What changes seem bad?

c. How are people different or the same?

d. How is society different or the same?

fri character development and the lucky winner is crossroads 9 pp 273 287
Fri.: Character Development“And the Lucky Winner Is…” Crossroads 9 pp. 273-287

In a short story, some of the characters change or grow throughout the events of the story. This is called character development.

1. What concerns do Jon and Peri have at the beginning of the story?

2. At the end of the story, how have their concerns changed?

3. Draw a plot line, and explain the plot of the story. As you do, insert explanations of how Jon and Peri have developed or changed.

character2

Character

Character Sketch

Note taking on 11/26

Writing on 11/26-27

what is a character sketch
What is a Character Sketch?

A character sketch is a write-up about a specific character, giving the character’s main personality traits and physical attributes. It should include the following:

  • Identifying the Character (1 paragraph)
  • Physical Description (1 paragraph)
  • Personality & Characteristics (1-2 paragraphs)
  • Importance of the Character to the Story (1 paragraph)
1 identify the character
1. Identify the Character

This paragraph could be the introduction.

Tell who the character is by naming the character and what role he/she plays in the story.

Give the title of the novel/story/play.

Tell whether he/she is a major, secondary, or minor character.

2 physical description
2. Physical Description

Tell what the character looks like. Use evidence from the novel – be specific!

Look for the best quotes you can – note characterization methods!

3 personality and characteristics
3. Personality and Characteristics

Explain what the character “is like”.

This could include:

  • His/her likes and dislikes
  • His/her good and bad qualities
  • His/her strong and weak points
  • His/her attitude and opinions
  • Basically, any personality characteristic that is shown through characterization.
3 personality and characteristics cont
3. Personality and Characteristics cont.

IMPORTANT: Whatever statements you make about a character, they MUST be backed up (proven) by evidence from the story!

Give examples, quotations, and references from the story to prove what you say.

4 importance of the character to the story
4. Importance of the Character to the Story

Explain the importance of this character and his/her role in the story.

Consider how he/she added to the story and speculate on how the story might have been different had he/she acted differently.

personality words
Aggressive

Ambitious

Anxious

Bitter

Boastful

Cautious

Clumsy

Concerned

Confident

Considerate

Courageous

Courteous

Cowardly

Cruel

Curious

Dependable

Disorganized

Easy-going

Eccentric

Excitable

Faithful

Friendly

Generous

Gentle

Gloomy

Greedy

Personality Words
personality words1
Grouchy

Gullible

Helpful

Honest

Humble

Hypocritical

Ignorant

Ill-tempered

Imaginative

Impatient

Independent

Ingenious

Insecure

Insistent

Intelligent

Inventive

Irrepressible

Jealous

Lazy

Lonely

Loving

Loyal

Miserly

Moody

Nervous

Obnoxious

Optimistic

Outgoing

Outrageous

Pessimistic

Polite

Proud

Personality Words
personality words2
Relaxed

Reliable

Romantic

Rude

Sarcastic

Scatterbrained

Secretive

Sensitive

Shy

Sly

Sneaky

Sophisticated

Spontaneous

Stubborn

Superficial

Suspicious

Tactful

Timid

Tiresome

Treacherous

Uninhibited

Unintelligent

Unpredictable

Unreliable

Vague

Vain

Virtuous

Vital

Vulnerable

Witty

Personality Words
write a character sketch prewriting
Write a Character Sketch~ Prewriting ~

Choose a character from a book, story, or film.

Make three columns in your notebook:

Appearance Personality Significance

write a character sketch prewriting1
Write a Character Sketch~ Prewriting ~

In the columns, brainstorm things about that character – what that character looks like and sounds like, what his/her personality is like, and what significant things he/she does in the story in which he/she appears.

Wherever possible, provide solid PROOF of what you say.

(For example, if you say that “Scrooge is greedy”, prove it by jotting down incidents when he chooses money over people, refuses to give to the poor, and keeps his office cold to save money on heat, despite making working conditions miserable for his workers.)

write a character sketch drafting
Write a Character Sketch~ Drafting ~

Write a draft of the character sketch you have outlined in your prewriting.

write a character sketch editing
Write a Character Sketch~ Editing ~

Exchange your first drafts with your partner.

Using the performance profile, evaluate your partner’s work. Also, indicate any errors in CONVENTIONS that you notice by noting them directly on the sheet.

When you are finished with the profile, give it back to your partner. You will have 5 minutes to talk to each other about how the work can be improved.

In your conversations, do not focus on the CONVENTIONS; focus on how your partner can improve the quality of his/her writing.

write a character sketch second draft
Write a Character Sketch~ Second Draft ~

Complete the second draft of the character sketch at home.

It should be in MLA format and typed (if possible).

the day the martian landed

“The Day the Martian Landed”

Crossroads 9 pp. 122-126

Complete “Responding to the story” on p. 125.

dialogue the day the martian landed crossroads 9 pp 122 126
Dialogue“The Day the Martian Landed”, Crossroads 9 pp. 122-126

Dialogue is a conversation between people. Writers create realistic dialogue in many ways:

  • They copy normal speech.
  • They use slang.
  • They use an apostrophe to show missing letters and contractions – “shortcuts” that people often use when they speak.
  • They use ellipsis points (…) or dashes (–) to show where words have been left out or where speech has been interrupted.
dialogue the day the martian landed crossroads 9 pp 122 1261
Dialogue“The Day the Martian Landed”, Crossroads 9 pp. 122-126

1. Reread the story and identify dialogue techniques the author has used. Jot down some brief examples.

2. Is the use of dialogue effective? Does it reflect “normal speech”? What does the use of dialogue in the story accomplish?

3. How does the dialogue add humour to the story?

g trueheart man s best friend

“G. Trueheart, Man’s Best Friend”

Crossroads 9 pp. 94-101

Complete “Responding to the Story” on p. 100.

dialogue g trueheart man s best friend crossroads 9 pp 94 101
Dialogue“G. Trueheart, Man’s Best Friend”, Crossroads 9 pp. 94-101.

Rewrite the following sentences from the story, changing them to make the punctuation in them correct:

Aunt Prudence said, Now you know how much she loves you, Tommy. She saved your life.

Boy, oh, boy! the lumberjacks said, a fighting dog like that is man’s best friend.

Tom Hamilton, his mother said, get to school!

coffee snacks worms

“Coffee, Snacks, Worms”

Crossroads 9 pp. 87-93

Complete “Responding to the Story” 1. a. and b., and “Literature Studies” questions, p. 93.

dialogue g trueheart man s best friend crossroads 9 pp 94 1011
Dialogue“G. Trueheart, Man’s Best Friend”, Crossroads 9 pp. 94-101.

Reread the story and analyze how the author uses dialogue:

1. Look at how the author has written dialogue without using quotation marks. Why might he have done this? Do you think this works?

2. How else does the author use sentence structure that might be considered “incorrect”? What effect does this stylistic choice have?

dialogue coffee snacks worms crossroads 9 pp 87 93
Dialogue“Coffee, Snacks, Worms”, Crossroads 9 pp. 87-93

Dialogue is one of the most important tools of story writers. Dialogue can reveal things about characters, and most importantly, move the plot along.

Look at the story and analyze how the author uses dialogue:

1. Does she use dialogue to reveal character or move the plot along? Provide an example.

2. Look at the dialogue in the novel you are reading independently. In a paragraph, describe the use of dialogue in that novel.

character3

Character

Types of Characters

types of characters
Types of Characters

Characters can be described in several ways. Two main ones are:

“Flat” vs. “Round”

“Major” vs. “Minor”

flat v round characters
Flat v. Round Characters
  • Round (or dynamic) characters change and grow throughout the course of a story. The change might be emotional, spiritual, or intellectual. Through encountering the conflicts and crises in the story, they illuminate the message(s) the author is sending.
  • Flat (or static) characters do not change and grow throughout the story.
babysitting helen

“Babysitting Helen”

Crossroads 9 pp. 300-307

Complete “Responding to the story” 1. b.

character development babysitting helen crossroads 9 pp 300 307
Character Development“Babysitting Helen”, Crossroads 9, pp. 300-307

To what extent does Trish undergo a change in this story? In your notebook:

  • Outline what Trish is like at the beginning of the story. Include a quote or two that proves this.
  • Outline how Trish has changed by the end of the story. Include a quote or two that shows this change.
voice diary entry babysitting helen crossroads 9 pp 300 307
VOICE – Diary Entry“Babysitting Helen”, Crossroads 9, pp. 300-307

At the end of the story, Trish never explains why she is willing to go back and “party with [Helen] any time.” Why do you think she’s willing to go back?

Take on the role of Trish. Write a diary entry from Trish’s perspective explaining why you are prepared to return and spend more time with Helen. (150-250 words)

major v minor characters
Major v. Minor Characters

Major characters are important to the story. They tend also to be round.

Protagonist – The central character of a literary work.

Antagonist – The rival or opponent against whom the main character (protagonist) is contending.

major v minor characters1
Major v. Minor Characters

Minor characters tend to be flat, but are also important to a story in that they serve particular purposes, which may include:

  • Giving the author a way to provide background information
  • Act as a foil (a contrast character) or alter ego (a comparison character) to a major character
  • Foreshadow events
  • Advance the plot
  • Illuminate theme
  • Enhance the setting
  • Establish mood
stereotypes
Stereotypes

Sometimes, characters are stereotypes – characters that reflect expectations of behaviour from particular groups, rather than a fleshed-out personality.

Stereotypes can serve a purpose in a story as a minor character, but as major characters they are usually simply a sign of weak writing.

borders

“Borders”

Crossroads 9 pp. 46-57

Complete “Responding to the Story”. Crossroads 9 pp. 46-57

Complete “Writing” (develop characters) on p. 57.

language complex sentences
Language – Complex Sentences

Copied in packet

[create a later slide that is about editing looking for places to turn simple sentences into complex ones]

atmosphere1
Atmosphere

Atmosphere – the overall mood or tone of the story. Atmosphere is usually established at the beginning of a story.

Any number of things can contribute to the atmosphere, including (but not limited to):

  • Characters
  • Clothing
  • Furniture
  • Natural surroundings
  • Light/darkness
  • Weather

Atmosphere has a close connection with setting, because the setting often determines the atmosphere of the story.

thank you ma am

“Thank You, Ma’am”

Crossroads 9 pp. 72-76

Complete “1. Responding to the Story”

p. 76 and the questions in “3. Language Conventions: Paragraph Structure”

voice thank you letter
VOICE – Thank-you Letter

Go to page 76 of Crossroads 9 and complete the exercise “2. Writing: Create a Thank-You Letter”.

style1
Style

Style – the ways an author expresses himself/ herself and conveys his/her ideas and central purpose.

Style is very personal, like a signature – no two writing styles are identical.

In order to examine a writer’s style, we must consider the following six areas: diction, sentence structure, point of view, irony, symbolism, imagery.

style diction
Style - DICTION

Diction – word choice.

Diction is what makes the short story an art form; words are chosen specifically to achieve a particular purpose.

style point of view
Style – Point of View

Point of view – the vantage point from which the author presents the action of the story. The point of view is presented by the narrator.

Every work of fiction has a narrator; the person telling the story is the narrator, NOT the author!

In some stories, there is little separation between the narrator and the author, but in others the narrator brings his/her own biases to the telling of the story.

style point of view1
Style – Point of View

There are two ways to describe point of view:

Third person perspective

vs.

First person perspective

AND

Limited narration

vs.

Omniscient narration

style point of view2
Style – Point of View

Third person narration

– The person telling

the story is NOT part

of the action.

The reader/viewer sees the action as if from an external camera.

They saw the enemy ahead. Creeping up quietly, John raised his rifle…

style point of view3
Style – Point of View

First person narration – This is a major, minor, or “silent” character who tells the story.

(“Silent” means they play no role in the action of the story, but are present in it.)

I saw them there, crouched behind

the boxes, and shouted to my team

to fire at will!

point of view language
Point of View – Language

You can identify a first- or third-person perspective based upon the pronouns used by the narrator.

First person narration –I or we are used.

Third person narration –He, she, or they are used.

subject and object pronouns
Subject and Object Pronouns

Basic Sentence Structure:

Mary and Iwent to the park.

subject verb object

Pronouns are words that take the place of nouns in a sentence.

There are two types of pronouns: Subject pronouns and object pronouns.

Basically, subject pronouns are the “do-ers” of the action in the sentence, and come before the verb.

Object pronouns have the verb “acted upon” them.

slide125
Subject Pronouns

I

You (s.)

He/She/It

We

You (pl.)

They

Object Pronouns

Me

You (s.)

Him/Her/It

Us

You (pl.)

Them

(+ others, e.g. himself, herself, etc.)

Subject pronouns can only go in the subject position in a sentence; object pronouns can only go in the object position!
french language students usually understand this best by recognizing the parallels in french
Subject Pronouns

Je

Tu

Il/Elle

Nous

Vous

Ils/Elles

Object Pronouns

Moi

Toi

Il/Elle

Nous

Vous

Lui

French-language students usually understand this best by recognizing the parallels in French.
slide127
A COMMON MISTAKE! NOTE THIS!

You probably would not say:

“Me went to the park.”

Little children talk this way, because they have not absorbed language rules yet. When used in public speaking (for example), it is a mark of a lack of education.

You would not do this because “me” is an object pronoun – not to be used in the subject position!

Likewise, then, you should not use the following:

Mary and me are going out tonight.

Me and him are gonna get together after school.

style point of view4
Style – Point of View

Limited narration – The narrator’s knowledge is limited to the direct knowledge of the narrator/character.

This is the point of view that is most like “real life”, and provides an immediacy to the action.

For example, you do not know exactly what is happening behind each of the walls of the classroom you are in. Likewise, a limited narrator would only know what he/she could perceive.

style point of view5
Style – Point of View

Omniscient narration – The narrator knows everything about the characters and events, and can “enter the mind” of any character at will.

Omniscient narration is useful for stories with several characters of equal importance, or for letting the viewer see the antagonist’s point of view as well as the protagonist’s.

Omniscient narration sacrifices immediacy of action.

The omniscient narrator is often confused with the author.

style point of view6
Style – Point of View

When you describe the narration in a story, you must describe the various aspects of the point of view.

There are FOUR basic points of view:

  • First person omniscient
  • First person limited
  • Third person omniscient
  • Third person limited
style point of view7
Style – Point of View

First Person

Limited Omniscient

Third Person

point of view some examples
Point of View – Some Examples
  • “The Three Little Pigs” is written from the third person omniscient perspective. We can see what each of the pigs is doing inside the houses, and what the wolf does outside as well.
  • The Outsiders is written from the first person limited perspective. We only see what Ponyboy sees, and events are interpreted for us by Ponyboy. (Cue for Treason is the same, with Peter being the narrator.)
  • The “Harry Potter” series is written mostly in the third person limited perspective. The only action that we see happen is when Harry is present; the rest is reported to the reader by other characters. (Most suspense novels are written from this point of view, to maintain suspense by keeping the reader guessing.) Occasionally, the author allows us to see the teachers talking, and on one or two occasions lets us see the villains scheming (switching narrative perspectives).
point of view exercise
Point of View – Exercise

Complete the following exercise in your notebook:

  • Choose three novels you have read in the recent past.
  • For each, name the narrative point of view employed by the author.
  • For each, explain (in a couple of sentences) how the narrative point of view operates, and what you think it gives to the story. (I.e. How would the story be different otherwise? Why do you think the author choose this point of view? Does this point of view help deliver the message or theme?)
theme

Theme

“When I write a novel, I feel rather like a juggler trying to keep a dozen themes spinning up there in the air. In my [short] stories, on the other hand, there tends to be one central theme.”

Margaret Laurence

theme1
Theme

Theme – The theme of a story represents what the protagonist (main character) and/or reader learns about life. It is the “message” that the author is sending through the story – the story is the medium for the message.

Author Short Story Reader

Also recall the three purposes of a short story: To entertain, to teach, and to raise questions.

a sunrise on the veld

“A Sunrise on the Veld”

Crossroads 9 pp. 77-86.

Complete “Responding to the Story” and the questions in “Story Craft: Analyze the Theme” on p. 85.

pass back narrative
Pass-back Narrative

Take out a piece of looseleaf and a pen/pencil.

Get into groups of 5-6 people. Move your desks so they are facing each other (i.e. in a circle).

slide139
You will be writing stories as a group. Each of you will have a completed story at the end of this period.

As the first writer, you have the responsibility of creating the exposition and inciting force. Your story begins with this line:

George was walking in the park when suddenly… (you finish the line)

Write this line on the top line of your page now.

slide140
Every few minutes, we will pass the stories to the person on the RIGHT. When you receive a new story, you will read it, and work with the first person’s idea for the next phase of the story.

Stories will follow short story structure. Each number represents a person:

plot of a short story4
Plot of a Short Story

5

6

6

4

crises

3

2

1

short short stories

Short Short Stories

Or, Postcard Stories

acceptance

“Acceptance”

Crossroads 9 pp. 33-34

Complete “Responding to the story”,

p. 34.

bus stop

“Bus Stop”

Crossroads 9 pp. 102-103

Complete “Responding to the story”,

p. 103.

the choice

“The Choice”

Crossroads 9 pp. 170-171

Complete “Responding to the story” on p. 171.

Then, write an alternate ending to the story, following the directions in the “Writing” section on p. 171.

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