m tis and fn in the northwest riel returns m tis bill of rights
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Métis and FN in the Northwest, Riel Returns, Métis Bill of Rights . Northwest rebellion. Métis in the Northwest territories. 1884 losing patience with Canadian Government Unclear status under the Indian Act Not part of the treaty process Increasing immigration of settlers

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m tis in the northwest territories
Métis in the Northwest territories
  • 1884 losing patience with Canadian Government
  • Unclear status under the Indian Act
  • Not part of the treaty process
  • Increasing immigration of settlers
  • Feared loss of rights
first nations starving
First Nations Starving
  • FN signed treaties gave up their land and moved to reserves.
  • government broke promises about providing food after the buffalo were all but killed off.
  • Government refused to feed “difficult people”

“They made us many promises, more than I can remember, but they kept only one; they promised to take our land, and they did.”

Chief Red Cloud

first nations in need of help
First Nations in need of help
  • First Nations came to the Métis and settlers for help and aid
  • The Métis and settlers angry
  • felt they had to pay for the government’s broken promises.
canadian government agenda
Canadian Government Agenda
  • Surveys told the government that 6. 4 million hectares of land
  • = 71 million dollars in government revenue
  • NO Métis petition was going to stand in the way
where is riel
Where is riel?
  • After Red River
  • Sent into exile 5 years, lasted 15
  • Turned to religion
  • Convinced he is a profit
  • Time in a asylum
  • Settled in Montana
  • Married, 2 kids, teacher (like me!)
return of the king
1884 Métis needed a strong and iconic leader

Gabriel Dumont asked Riel to return as the Métis Leader

Return of the king!
m tis bill of rights
Métis Bill of rights
  • Addressed Métis grievances
  • Written by Riel and William Henry Jackson (local farmer representative)
  • Included concerns of Métis and non-Métis people (FN, European farmers) living in the Northwest Territories
  • Sent to Ottawa Dec 1884 and acknowledged by gov., but rights ignored!
Crushing the Rebellion would:

Prove the value of and need for the CPR

Free up Métis land for settlement

Ensure Métis did not gain land rights

Did HBC Factor Clarke promote a rebellion?

government prepares for rebellion
Government prepares for rebellion

The government passed a law making it illegal to sell bullets to the Métis living in the Northwest Territories.

again riel sends another petition
AGAIN Riel sends another Petition

Riel knew the government was in possession of the Métis Bill of Rights

This petition demanded responsible government for the Northwest Territories

government prepares for the rebellion
Government prepares for the rebellion
  • HBC Chief Factor and Magistrate Lawrence Clarke became the government’s informant
  • Wants the Métis gone
  • Made a ton of cash in land speculation
  • Feared lose everything if Métis granted land rights
riel and clarke the final straw
Riel and Clarke- the final straw!
  • Riel picked Clarke as their representative
  • Political connections
  • Riel assumed sympathetic
  • Clarke went to Ottawa
  • The only answer the Métis will receive for their petition was bullets
  • 500 NWMP sent to arrest Riel
justice commands us
Justice Commands us!
  • March 19 Riel at Batoche
  • Peaceful solution impossible
  • Canadian government determined to make war
  • “justice commands us to take up arms”
battle of duck lake may 26 1885
Battle of Duck Lake May 26 1885
  • Métis moved on Fort Carlton to seize supplies
  • NWMP Superintendent LiefCrozier confronted Métis army at Duck Lake
  • Negotiations failed- 2 Métis shot!
  • Both sides open fire
m tis victory at duck lake
Métis Victory at Duck Lake
  • the Métis were better marksmen, and, they knew the land better…they were victorious at Duck Lake.
  • 12 NWMP dead, 25 wounded
  • Fort Carlton evacuated
empire strikes back
  • Canadian government mobilized 5000 troops
  • Troops arrive in just 5 days! Entire force in 10 days!- Thanks CPR
  • General Middleton in charge
battle of fish creek
Battle of fish creek
  • Dumont knew to ambush Canadian troops before they reached Batoche
  • Ambushed at Fish Creek
  • 300 Métis stopped 1600 militia soldiers
riel s mental state
Riel’s mental state?
  • Said God himself was talking to him and telling him he was “the chosen leader of the Métis people”.
  • During battles, he would find a hill and climb to the top, hold a crucifix over his head to bless the Métis soldiers.
battle of b atoche may 9
Battle of BatocheMay 9
  • Métis stronghold- Batoche attacked by Canadian troops
  • Had canons and Gatling Gun
  • Métis short on bullets and used rocks
battle of batoche
Battle of Batoche
  • Métis defeated- surrender or flee
  • Dumont fled to the US
  • Riel surrendered May 15- thought trial could bring his cause to attention
  • Death toll
  • 53 Canadian soldiers and volunteers
  • 35 Métis and First Nations
chief poundmaker
Chief Poundmaker
  • Refused to join the NW Rebellion
  • Believed resistance was futile
  • His people attacked by Canadian troops at Cut Knife Hill
  • Arrested for treason, sentenced to 3 years
chief big bear
Chief Big Bear
  • Refused to join the NW Rebellion
  • 1885 his people refused supplies at Frog Lake
  • Wandering Spirit took 9 hostages- killed
  • Big Bear convicted of treason- 3 years
  • Wandering Spirit executed
chief crowfoot
Chief Crowfoot
  • Refused to join NW Rebellion
  • Railway dispute
  • Railway building on his reserve
  • Peaceful negotiations
  • Got compensated with extra land
  • Willaim Van Horne awarded him CPR lifetime pass
trial of riel july 28 1885
Trial of Riel July 28 1885
  • Taken to Regina and charged with treason
  • Lawyers wanted Insane defense
  • Riel wanted to argue Métis forced to fight
  • Not allowed to testify or question witnesses
  • 6 man jury
found guilty of treason august 1
Found Guilty of treason August 1
  • Found guilty after 1 hour- jury recommended mercy
  • Law required death penalty
  • Quebec petitions demanded mercy
  • Hanged November 16 1885
m tis and first nations
Métis and First Nations
  • No land titles, forced to squat on public land reserved for roads
  • Half-breed became an insult
  • Moved into cities to hide ancestry
  • 81 charged with murder or treason- 44 convicted
  • No translation in court
  • 8 hanged for murder in Battleford November 17
  • At the mercy of the government


First Nations