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sleep, consciousness, and paper writing. Michael Frank 3/14/07. Today. Consciousness and sleep Quiz Brief review of paper writing. Sleep review. How many sleep stages? How are they measured?. Sleep stages. Stage 1: Hypnogogic sleep Stage 2: Sleep spindles Stages 3 & 4: Slow-wave sleep

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  • Consciousness and sleep

  • Quiz

  • Brief review of paper writing

Sleep review
Sleep review

  • How many sleep stages?

  • How are they measured?

Sleep stages
Sleep stages

  • Stage 1: Hypnogogic sleep

  • Stage 2: Sleep spindles

  • Stages 3 & 4: Slow-wave sleep

  • REM sleep

Sleep stages1
Sleep stages

Kales and Kales. N. Engl. J. Med.1974;209:487-499

Discussion consciousness sleep
Discussion: Consciousness & Sleep

  • Are we conscious during dreams (REM sleep)?

  • What is the function of REM sleep?

  • Why might sleep patterns change with age?


  • What are the two types of conditioning (bonus: what is the name of the researcher most associated with each technique)

  • What is latent learning?

  • If TV and video games make children violent, this is an example of what kind of learning?

  • What was the hardest question on the exam?

Writing a critical review
Writing a critical review

  • Seems strange, but actually very common in science:

    • Read a variety of sources

    • Synthesize into an argument for or against

  • Paper should be about particular arguments, not opinions or personalities

    • No reference to own feelings

    • Very rare to use direct quotations

    • Not about personalities involved, just about theories/facts

Paper structure
Paper structure

  • Thesis: Squirrels are evil. [argumentativeclaim]

  • Squirrels steal from other species

    • bird feeders [evidence]

    • picnics [evidence]

  • Squirrels do not act morally towards one another

  • Squirrels bite without provocation

  • Conclusion: Squirrels are definitely evil [restate thesis]. Should we eradicate them? [extend]

The road map
The Road Map

  • Road map gives the reader a preview of the argument:

  • Signposts help the reader stay on track

  • “What is the moral status of squirrels? They steal from their own kind, they act immorally towards other species, and they bite without provocation. The evidence is clear: squirrels are evil.”

  • “Our second argument for squirrels’ immorality is...”


  • Thesis in the first paragraph

  • No summary!

    • You can cite evidence for a specific point, but that’s different:

[Starting a paragraph]

Not so good:In his essay, Ronaldo writes that his hatred of squirrels started at an early age, when he saw one steal a sandwich from his brother.

Better:Squirrels steal from both their own species and from humans. Ronaldo observes that squirrel-on-human crime is extremely prevalent in Northern California.

Possible traps
Possible traps

  • Point-counterpoint

    • bad: john says this, but steve says the other thing

    • better: structure your argument around particular claims, not by evaluating the authors’ statements

  • Too much emphasis on “flow”

    • Arguments can be separate points

    • Numbering is useful for organization