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International Labour Organization. CONDITIONS AND NEEDS OF SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN TRANSPORT IN EU MEMBER STATES AND CANDIDATE COUNTRIES & THE ILO’s SECTORAL APPROACH ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR. Marios Meletiou Technical Specialist (Ports and Transport)

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International Labour Organization

CONDITIONS AND NEEDS OF SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN

TRANSPORT IN EU MEMBER STATES AND CANDIDATE COUNTRIES

&

THE ILO’s SECTORAL APPROACH ON SOCIAL DIALOGUE IN THE TRANSPORT SECTOR

Marios Meletiou

Technical Specialist (Ports and Transport)

SectoralActivities Department, ILO

A4-54169

Decent Work for Transport Workers Closing Conference

15 November 2011, ETF, Brussels, Belgium


International Labour Organization

STRUCTURE OF PRESENTATION

Part A: Introduction

Part B: Conditions & Social Dialogue in Transport in EU Member States

Part C: Key Information about the ILO

Part D: The ILO’s Sectoral Approach

Part E: Selected Current & Future ILO Transport Related Activities


International labour organization
International Labour Organization

Part A: Introduction

  • Globalization and Transport

  • The New Agenda for Social Dialogue in the Transport Sector


International labour organization1
International Labour Organization

Part A: Introduction

  • Globalization and Transport


International labour organization2
International Labour Organization

“Globalization” means different things to different people:

  • For some it is the culprit of poverty and war

  • For others is a requirement to economic development for a growing world population

  • For a certain group is an opportunity for increasing financial returns

  • For most of us in the transport sector is a concept that describes a trend in international trade.


Current trends in international trade
Current Trends in International Trade

  • Trade is growing faster than the world’s GDP

  • Trade is not only in finished goods and services but increasingly in components, semi-finished products and services that are used within globalized production processes


The link between international transport globalization
The Link between International Transport & Globalization

  • Effective, efficient and lower cost transport systems have encouraged “Globalization”

  • International transport is growing because it is required to move increased volumes of traded goods and components as well as people for increased international professional and tourist activities

  • Transport is one of the four cornerstones of “Globalization”


The four cornerstones of globalization
The Four Cornerstones of “Globalization”

  • Transport has made it ever easier to buy and sell goods, raw materials and components almost anywhere in the world

  • Telecommunications are the necessary tools to transfer information

  • Trade liberalization allows the efficient international allocation of resources

  • International standards and homogeneous products foster global competition


Modes of transport
MODES OF TRANSPORT

  • Maritime Transport

  • Inland Waterways

  • Air transport

  • Road Transport

  • Railways

  • Pipelines

  • Space Transport!!!


International labour organization3
International Labour Organization

Transport is a service industry that provides services to:

  • Cargo

  • Passengers

  • Other modes of transport


International labour organization4
International Labour Organization

Maritime Transport is probably

the most globalized industry

  • Most maritime transport is provided between two or more countries

  • The service providers no longer need to be nationals of the same countries whose cargo they move


A possible real life scenario demonstrating the globalized nature of maritime transport
A possible real life scenario demonstrating the globalized nature of maritime transport

A Greek owned vessel, built in Korea using financing from a consortium of three international banks through their branches in Tokyo, New York and Frankfurt, registered in Panama, chartered to a Danish operator that operates through an offshore company in Singapore, who employs seafarers from the Philippines and Ukraine via a Cypriot crewing agent, insured in the UK, transports German made cargo in the name of a Swiss freight forwarder from a Dutch port to Argentina, through terminals that are concessioned to port operators from Hong Kong and Dubai respectively.


Globalization challenges
Globalization Challenges nature of maritime transport

  • Economic

  • Financial

  • Legal

  • Environmental

  • Social & Labour!

  • Security!


International Labour Organization nature of maritime transport

Fair Globalization and the ILO


The report of the world commission on the social dimension of globalization
The Report of the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization

On 24 February 2004, the World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalization released its report titled:

“A fair globalization:

Creating opportunities

for all”

Available at: http://www.ilo.org/public/english/fairglobalization/index.htm


of GlobalizationA fair globalization: Creating opportunities for all”

  • Available in the following Languages:

  • English

  • French

  • Spanish

  • Chinese

  • Arabic

  • Russian

  • German


Spirit of the commission s report
Spirit of the Commission of Globalization’s Report

  • Seeks a process of globalization with strong social dimension based on universally shared values and respect for human rights and individual dignity

  • Advocates for a globalization that is fair, inclusive, democratically governed and provides opportunities and tangible benefits for all countries and people


The commission s report calls for
The Commission of Globalization’s Report Calls for

  • A focus on people

  • A democratic and effective State

  • Sustainable development

  • Productive and equitable markets

  • Fair rules

  • Globalization with solidarity

  • Greater accountability to people

  • Deeper Partnerships

  • An effective United Nations


International labour organization5
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Part A: Introduction

  • Globalization and Transport

  • The New Agenda for Social Dialogue in the Transport Sector


International labour organization6
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Social dialogue in the transport sector

The social partners in the transport sector have, for many years, acknowledged the contribution that social dialogue can make to both efficient operations and decent work.

Social dialogue in good faith is still the most effective way of preventing conflict, in so far as possible.


International Labour Organization of Globalization

  • The New Agenda for Social Dialogue in the Transport Sector

  • Globalization and transport

  • Multi-modal supply chains

  • Multinational transport / logistics firms

  • Economic regional integrations

  • Fairer competition

  • Protecting and promoting “DecentWork”


International Labour Organization of Globalization

  • Who is Driving Change?

  • Retailers/manufacturers

  • International shipping lines

  • Global operators

  • Shippers / exporters / importers

  • Integrators

  • National / international legislation

  • Internal regulations of IGOs


Dinosaurs died out! Mammals did not! of Globalization

Instead!!

They embraced change and survived!!!


International labour organization7
International Labour Organization of Globalization

The Need for Institutions and Capacity for Social Dialogue for Reforms in the Transport Sector

Reforming the transport sector is a continual process that takes place at different rates and from different starting points according to circumstances. There is, therefore, no universal standard formula for restructuring the transport sector. Consequently, in order to ensure that the issues concerning structural adjustment in the transport sector are effectively addressed in a transparent manner, the institutions and capacity for social dialogue between the parties concerned need to be in place and might need to be strengthened.


International Labour Organization of Globalization

  • Representation of the Social Partners

  • State– Ministries of Labour and Transport, public

    Transport authorities and public operating companies

  • Employers– major private transport operators, business associations, employers’ associations, international associations

  • Workers – workplace representatives, works

    councils, worker directors, trade unions, national

    federations, international federations


International Labour Organization of Globalization

  • Representation of other Stakeholders

  • Users (e.g. shippers, importers/exporters)

  • Integrators (e.g. distribution and logistics

    companies)

  • Other transport operators

  • Local communities

  • Environmentalists


International labour organization8
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Part B: Conditions & Social Dialogue in Transport in EU Member States


International Labour Organization of Globalization

  • European Social Dialogue

  • Inter-professional (BUSINESSEUROPE,

    UEAPME, CEEP and ETUC)

  • Sector (36 Sector Social Dialogue

    Committees)

  • European Works Councils (880 active)


International labour organization9
International Labour Organization of Globalization

In Europe, the basic enabling conditions for social dialogue are embedded in the constitution of most Member States and their corpus of employment law. Nonetheless, the European Commission has noted a “social dialogue deficit” in some of the newer Member States.

Social dialogue is a vital pillar of European democracy, with a clearly defined basis in the EC Treaty (Articles 138 and 139).

The role played by social dialogue is based on its unique format – the fact that the social partners are in a unique position

within civil society as the representatives of the world of work, where organized interests are in a position

to make joint commitments and enforce agreements.


International labour organization10
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Specific Dimensions of Working Conditions & Outcomes Used by the European Foundation for the Improvement of Living & Working Conditions


International labour organization11
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Working conditions and outcomes - Land Transport Sector in EU

  • The specific dimensions of working conditions are assigned favourable and unfavourable scores.

  • Looking at the statistically significant differences only, workers in the land transport sector score unfavourably with regard to many dimensions.

  • Workers in this sector are exposed to a higher than average degree

    to long working hours (more than 48 weekly working hours) and non-standard working hours (night and evening work, Saturday/ Sunday work and more than 10 working hours a day).

  • Unsurprisingly, this sector scores relatively unfavourably on work–life balance, which means that working hours do not fit in well with family or social commitments outside work.


International labour organization12
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Key findings – Land Transport

  • In terms of socio-demographic characteristics, the land transport sector is a relatively male-dominated sector, with a comparatively small proportion of young workers.

  • Permanent employment contracts are highly prevalent and the income is high in comparison to average levels.

  • The education level, is below average: only a small proportion of workers has completed tertiary education.

  • With regard to working conditions and outcomes, workers in land transport are generally placed on the unfavourable side of the scale.

  • Long and nonstandard working hours are highly prevalent in this sector, which may explain the unfavourable score on work–life balance.

  • Low levels of job control and skilled work characterises this sector.

  • On average, workers in land transport have unfavourable scores on work related stress, musculoskeletal problems and exposure to physical violence.


International labour organization13
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Working conditions and outcomes Water and Air Transport Sector

  • Looking at the statistically significant differences only, employees in this sector have a relatively unfavourable score on level of job control (the ability to choose or change the order of tasks, methods of work and speed or rate of work).


International labour organization14
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Key findings – Water & Air Transport Sector

  • In terms of socio-demographic characteristics, the water and air transport and supporting and auxiliary transport activities sector is characterised by a higher than average proportion of male workers and a predominance of large companies.

  • Self-employment is not common in this sector compared to the average. In terms of income level, workers in this sector tend to fall into the high income band.

  • With regard to working conditions and outcomes, this sector scores unfavourably only on level of job control. Scores on other dimensions are not statistically significant.


International labour organization15
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Part C: Key Information about the ILO

  • The Structure and “Decent Work for All” Agenda of the ILO

  • ILO’s commitment to social dialogue


International labour organization16
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Part C: Key Information about the ILO

  • The Structure and “Decent Work for All” Agenda of the ILO


International labour organization17
International Labour Organization of Globalization

  • The ILO Was Founded in 1919

  • Is The First UN Specialized Agency

  • 183 Member States


International labour organization18
International Labour Organization of Globalization

The ILO is the UN specialized agency, which seeks the promotion of social justice and internationally recognized human and labour rights


International Labour Organization of Globalization

In 1969

The ILO Was Awarded The Nobel Prize For Peace!


International labour organization19
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Within the UN system,

the ILO

has a unique tripartite structure

with workers and employers

participating as equal partners

with governments

in the work of its governing organs.


International Labour Organization of Globalization

The ILO’s

“DECENT WORK FOR ALL”

Current Agenda


A of Globalizationdefinition of decent work

“Opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity”


International labour organization20
International Labour Organization of Globalization

  • The ILO formulates and promotes international labour standards in the form of Conventions and Recommendations setting minimum standards of basic labour rights .

  • It also develops and promotes the implementation of codes of practice, guidelines, manuals and training materials and provides relevant technical assistance.


Ilo products
ILO “Products” of Globalization

  • Conventions (Mandatory)

  • Recommendations

  • Codes of Practice & Guidelines

  • Manuals

  • Training Materials


International Labour Organization of Globalization

The ILO adopted 189 Conventions!


INTERNATIONAL LABOUR STANDARDS of Globalization

In essence, International Labour Standards are expressions of international tripartite agreements on a matter.

  • Conventions

  • International treaties, subject to ratification by ILO member States

  • Create binding obligations under International Law

  • Might require Member States to amend their national legislation

  • Recommendations

  • Set out guidelines which can orient national policy and action.

  • Often complement Conventions.


International labour organization21
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Part C: Key Information about the ILO

  • The Structure and “Decent Work for All” Agenda of the ILO

  • ILO’s commitment to social dialogue


International labour organization22
International Labour Organization of Globalization

The ILO's commitment to tripartism and social dialogue

Tripartism and social dialogue are integral components of "decent and productive work, for all women and men, and constitute essential channels for achieving this "in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity.


ILO Broad Definition of Globalization

of Social Dialogue

Social dialogue is any type of negotiation, consultation or exchange of information between, or among, representatives of governments, employers and workers, on issues of common interest relating directly to work and related economic and social policies. It covers tripartite social dialogue and industrial relations processes and institutions such as trade unions, employers’ associations and collective bargaining.


International Labour Organization of Globalization

International Labour Conference

“legitimate, independent and democratic organizations of workers and employers, engaging in dialogue and collective bargaining, bring a tradition of social peace based on free negotiations and accommodation of conflicting interests, therefore making social dialogue a central element of democratic societies” (90th Session, June 2002).


International labour organization23
International Labour Organization of Globalization

The resolution concerning tripartism and social dialogue, adopted at the 90th Session of the International Labour Conference in 2002, invited governments of member States "to ensure that the necessary preconditions exist for social dialogue, including respect for the fundamental principles and the right to freedom of association and collective bargaining, a sound industrial relations environment, and respect for the role of the social partners" in achieving employment goals and improving social protection.


Promotional work of the ilo
Promotional work of Globalizationof the ILO

  • Tripartite social dialogue:

    - Equal footing

    - Broad consultations

    - All levels

  • Bipartite social dialogue/collective bargaining:

    • Autonomy of social partners

    • Voluntary nature of collective bargaining

    • Responsibility of the State:

      • Institutional support to social partners

      • Engage in dialogue in the public service with workers’ representatives


International labour organization24
International Labour Organization of Globalization

ILO support for social dialogue

  • The ILO supports social dialogue through a range of activities, principally:

  • Standard-setting

  • Technical assistance/policy advice

  • ACTRAV, ACT/EMP and other ILO departments (e.g. Social Dialogue, Labour Law, Labour Administration and Sectoral Activities Department)

  • International Training Centre, Turin


International labour organization25
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Part D: ILO’s Sectoral Approach


International Labour Organization of Globalization

Sectoral Activities Department


Sectoral activities department 22 economic sectors

Agriculture, plantations, rural of Globalization

Basic metal production

Chemical industries

Commerce

Construction

Education

Financial services; other professional services.

Food, drink, tobacco

Forestry, wood, pulp, paper

Health services

Hotels, tourism, catering

Maritime (Shipping, ports, fisheries, inland waterways)

Mechanical & electrical engineering

Media, cultural, graphical

Mining

Oil & gas production; oil refining

Postal & other communication services.

Public service

Textiles, clothing, leather, footwear

Transport (air, road, rail)

Transport equipment manufacture

Utilities (water, gas, electricity)

Sectoral Activities Department22 Economic sectors


Why a sectoral approach
Why a sectoral approach? of Globalization

  • Get close to constituents

    • Those who work, and their employers

  • Address targeted, practical issues

  • Reflects growing importance of sectoral social dialogue

    • And encourages it

  • Many Conventions sector-specific

  • Promotes Decent Work at the sectoral level

  • Get messages from the “real world”


International labour organization26
International Labour Organization of Globalization

Examples of ILO’spast sector specific work on social dialogue in the transport sector


ILO Tripartite Meeting on Social and of GlobalizationLabour Issues Arising from Problems of Cross-border Mobility

Of International Drivers in the Road Transport Sector

Geneva, 23 to 26 October 2006


Examples of social labour issues at road transport border crossings
Examples of Social & Labour Issues of Globalizationat Road Transport Border Crossings

  • Long delays

  • Border Controls

  • Psychological violence

  • Discrimination

  • Working and Living Conditions

  • Unofficial payments

  • Environment

  • HIV/AIDS



International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

  • Basic Enabling Conditions for Social Dialogue

  • Freedom of association

  • Democratic foundations

  • Legitimacy

  • Political will and commitment

  • Social acceptance

  • Technical competence

  • Capacity to deliver


International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

  • Checklist for Social Dialogue

  • What interest organizations exist to represent the social partners?

  • How inclusive, comprehensive and representative are these interest

    organizations?

  • How are any differences resolved within and between the different interest

    organizations?

  • What mechanisms exist for the ratification and enforcement of agreements

    reached between the social partners?

  • Who are the other stakeholders with an interest in transport and

    related activities?

  • What mechanisms exist to involve other stakeholders in dialogue with the

    social partners?


International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

  • Supportive Industrial Relations Environment

  • Policy concertation and sector collective

    bargaining

  • Employee involvement

  • Information exchange, consultation and

    co-determination


International labour organization27
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Phases

Planning

Initiating

Implementing

Monitoring and evaluation

Need aware-ness and inter-dependence

Unilateral, bipartite or tripartite

Business-centred or employee-centred participation

Establishing

agreed

criteria

Activities

Internal review by social partners

Consultation about consultation

Hard and/or

soft regulation

Process and/or outcomes

Joint strategic review of port(s)

Forcing and fostering strategies

Balancing flexibility and security

Data

collection

Feedback, remedial action, and conflict resolution

Setting an agreed agenda

Phases and Activities of Social Dialogue


International labour organization28
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

EU Funded ILO TC projects on Social Dialogue in the Transport Sector

  • “Strengthening Social Dialogue in the Process of Structural Adjustment and Private Sector Participation in Ports in Bulgaria, Romania and Croatia” (2008/09)

  • “Strengthening the capacity of social partners in the road transport sector in Bulgaria and Romania to engage in effective and constructive social dialogue at international, national and enterprise level” (2008/10)


International labour organization29
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Part E: Selected Current & Future ILO Transport Related Activities


International labour organization30
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Current & Future ILO Activities in Ports:

  • Adoption & publication of ILO Guidelines on training in the port sector

  • ILO Portworker Development Programme (PDP) – Training of PDP instructors & extension of PDP to cover training of portworkers in bulk terminals

  • Promotion of Social Dialogue in Ports

  • Updating of ILO COP on safety & health in ports


International labour organization31
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Current & Future ILO Activities in Shipping & Inland Waterways:

  • Promotion of and training on the ILO MLC 2006

  • Promotion of & technical assistance & training on the ILO Convention 185 (2003)

  • Assessment of the role of the ILO in addressing the assistance required by seafarers with regard to piracy.

  • Study to assess the current working conditions in the inland waterways sector and to determine what elements might be applicable from the MLC, 2006.


International labour organization32
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Current & Future ILO Activities in Fishing:

  • Promotion of & technical assistance & training on the ILO Convention 188 (2007)

  • Working paper on forced labour in the fishing sector with a view to a stakeholder consultation in 2012.


International labour organization33
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Current & Future ILO Activities in Road Transport:

  • Promotion of ILO/ITF/IRU training toolkit on HIV/AIDS in road transport

  • Activities regarding health and safety implications for drivers arising from X-ray scanning of commercial road transport vehicles.

  • ILO Contribution in the U.N. Decade of Action on Road Safety


International labour organization34
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Current & Future ILO Activities in Railways:

  • Promotion of ILO/ITF/UIC training toolkit on HIV/AIDS in road railways


International labour organization35
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Current & Future ILO Cross-Sectoral Activities in the Transport Sector:

  • Study to assess the working conditions of women in the transport sector (all modes and nodes) and identify how to improve their working environment.

  • Development of an IMO/ILO/UNECE Code of Practice for Packing Cargo Transport Units


International labour organization36
International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Future ILO Activities in Civil Aviation:

  • a tripartite Global Dialogue Forum will be organized in February 2013

    This GDF will discuss the effects of the global crises (in plural) in the civil aviation industry.

    The GDF will look at the industry as a whole, including airlines, airports, auxiliary services and other subsectors


Thank you very much for your attention
THANK YOU VERY MUCH FOR YOUR ATTENTION! and ICFTU & ITF

International Labour Organization


International Labour Organization and ICFTU & ITF

Questions

?

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