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CSE 244 -- Short Historical Intro. Aggelos Kiayias Computer Science & Engineering Department The University of Connecticut 371 Fairfield Road, Box U-2155 Storrs, CT 06269. Computing in the beginning of time. ?. Computing in the beginning of time. ... the legend.

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cse 244 short historical intro
CSE 244 -- Short Historical Intro

Aggelos Kiayias

Computer Science & Engineering Department

The University of Connecticut

371 Fairfield Road, Box U-2155

Storrs, CT 06269

computing in the beginning of time1
Computing in the beginning of time

... the legend

how do you program this?? Changing Gears!

the man...

and this

is only

a small

part of

the machine!

the programmer

Charles Babbage

The Difference Engine” (1822)

Lady Ada of Lovelace

computers
Computers!
  • Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer --- ENIAC, 1942

how do you program this?? Flicking Switches!

timeline
Timeline
  • the 1940’s. Code is hand generated at 0-1 level and entered by physical switches.Hardware is rewired according to the program.
  • the early 1950’s.First attempts to abstraction.Grace Murray Hopper:
    • “translation is a compilation of a sequence of machine-language subprograms selected from a library.”
    • first “compiler” A-0 (by G. M. Hopper)
    • Code now is written in Assembly form with simple English statements.
  • the late 1950’s.FORTRAN is born together with its Compiler!!!
fortran
Fortran

diagram from http://merd.net/pixel/language-study/diagram.html

the 1960 s
the 1960’s
  • ALGOL 60
    • The first Language with a formal grammar specification
    • more on this later on (in every meeting of this class!)
  • FORTRAN gets improved.
  • Language theory is better understood, it evolves and revolutionizes compiler design.
  • First “Syntax-Directed Compiler” is born in 1961.
  • PASCAL is born (Wirth, 1968).
  • First attempts at automating compiler construction using elements of Formal Language Theory.
the 1970 s 80 s 90 s
The 1970’s, 80’s, 90’s
  • C programming Language is born with its compiler (1972). Distributed as part of the UNIX operating system.
  • BASIC is born (1975).
  • “Compiler-Compiler” Tools start to be developed and used extensively.
  • Success of PCs brings compilers and interpreters in everyone’s home.
today
Today
  • Compilers are everywhere.
  • “Programming” (in the strict sense)is only one application domain...
    • TeX and LaTeX
      • language source is compiled into a document.
    • Postscript
      • language source is translated by laser printers to printer machine level instructions that print a document.
    • Mathematica / Matlab
      • use a language to specify mathematical operations.
    • Verilog / VHDL
      • compiles into a circuit
    • you name it...
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