Welcome to our short story unit
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Welcome to our Short Story Unit. (1) Plot : The chain of events that make up a story. It shows the cause-effect relationship of events and actions within a story. . Plot Triangle. (4) Climax : An intense emotional point and where the outcome of the conflict is decided (the turning point).

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Welcome to our Short Story Unit

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Welcome to our short story unit

Welcome to ourShort Story Unit

(1) Plot: The chain of events that make up a story.

It shows the cause-effect relationship of events and actions within a story.


Plot triangle

Plot Triangle

(4) Climax: An intense emotional point and where the outcome of the conflict is decided (the turning point).

(3) Rising Action:The series of events (complications) about the conflict in the story that lead to the climax

(5) Falling Action:All of the action which follows the climax

(2) Exposition:The introduction of the story where setting, characters, and conflict are introduced

(6) Resolution: The conclusion; the tying together of all of the threads


7 setting

(7) Setting

  • The time and place of a story.

  • Most often, the setting is described in the exposition (beginning) of a story.

  • Contributes to the plot – especially in character vs. nature conflict.


8 mood atmosphere

(8) Mood/Atmosphere

  • The overall feeling of a piece of literature.

  • Can be described with one or two adjectives (scary, happy, sad)

  • Images or sounds used by the writer to create a specific feeling


9 suspense

(9) Suspense

  • The uncertainty or anxiety that a reader feels about what will happen next in a story.

  • Suspense is created by mood, as well as the following techniques:

    • Foreshadowing – hints of what’s to come

    • Mystery – withholding information from the reader or unusual circumstances

    • Reversal – good to bad or bad to good

    • Dilemma – forced to choose between two dangerous situations


10 conflict

(10) Conflict

A struggle between opposing characters or forces

Without conflict, there is no plot.


Types of conflict

(11) External Conflict: A character struggles with an outside force: Character vs. Character

Character vs. Nature

Character vs. Society

Types of Conflict

(12) Internal Conflict: A character struggles with himself or herself:

Character vs. Self


13 theme

(13) Theme

  • An idea or message the writer wishes to convey about the subject; a general idea or insight about life

  • Most often themes are not stated directly

  • The reader has to think about all the elements of the work

Things are not always what they seem.


Types of characters

Types of Characters

(14) Dynamic characters: Change over the course of the story

(15) Static characters:Stay the same throughout the course of the story


Characters include

Characters include…

(16) PROTAGONIST:The main character in a work of literature

(17) ANTAGONIST: The character OR force opposing the main character

All other characters are minor characters


18 characterization

(18) Characterization

  • The way an author reveals the personality of a character

  • (19) Direct characterization

    • The author simply tells you a character’s personality

  • Ex. Katie is honest.


20 indirect characterization

(20) Indirect Characterization

  • The author reveals the character’s personality through:

    • Words of the character

    • Actions of the character

    • Thoughts and feelings of the character

    • Words and actions of other characters

    • Character’s appearance (looks and clothing)


21 character trait

(21) Character Trait

  • A quality shown by a character in a story:

    • Tall

    • Short

    • Happy

    • Protective

    • Smart….


22 point of view

(22) Point of View

  • The vantage point from which a story is told (who is telling the story)

  • The three most common points of view are

    • Third-person Omniscient

    • Third-person limited

    • First Person


23 first person narrator

(23) First Person Narrator

  • One character tells the story using “I”

  • Told by a character in the story

  • We only know what this person knows

  • Information may not be reliable


24 third person limited narrator

(24) Third-Person Limited Narrator

  • Tells the story through the eyes of only one character

  • Narrator not part of the story

  • Narrator focuses on thoughts and feelings of only one character


25 third person omniscient narrator

(25) Third-Person Omniscient Narrator

  • Tells the story from an all-knowing view point

  • The narrator knows everything about all the characters and their thoughts, feelings, and motivations

  • Stands apart rather like a god


26 foreshadowing

(26) Foreshadowing

  • Hints or clues about the story’s upcoming events


27 symbol

(27) SYMBOL

  • A person, place, thing or event that has meaning in itself and stands for something beyond itself

  • For example: When an American flag is mentioned in a story, it might mean freedom or patriotism.


28 tone

(28) Tone

  • The attitude a writer takes towards his or her subject, characters, and audience.

    • Examples:

      • Sarcastic

      • Encouraging

      • Bitter

      • Optimistic


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