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Modeling & Simulation of Bluetooth MAC protocol. COE543 Term Project Spring 2003 Submitted by: H.M.Asif (ID# 230457). Outlines:. Bluetooth overview The Bluetooth Stack Bluetooth MAC protocol Simulation design and Assumption Results Future work Conclusion. Bluetooth overview:.

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Modeling & Simulation of Bluetooth MAC protocol

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Modeling simulation of bluetooth mac protocol

Modeling & Simulation of Bluetooth MAC protocol

COE543 Term Project

Spring 2003

Submitted by:

H.M.Asif (ID# 230457)



  • Bluetooth overview

  • The Bluetooth Stack

  • Bluetooth MAC protocol

  • Simulation design and Assumption

  • Results

  • Future work

  • Conclusion

Bluetooth overview

Bluetooth overview:

  • What is Bluetooth?

  • Why Bluetooth?

  • Bluetooth History

  • Bluetooth Network Topology

What is bluetooth

What is Bluetooth?

  • Cable replacement technology primarily

  • Bluetooth wireless technology is an open specification for a low-cost, low-power, short-range radio technology for ad-hoc wireless communication of voice and dataanywhere in the world.

Cont d


  • Bluetooth uses a frequency-hopping scheme in the unlicensed Industrial Scientific-Medical (ISM) band at 2.4 GHz.

  • The major goal with the Bluetooth wireless technology is to allow relatively cheap electronic devices to communicate directly in an ad-hoc fashion, Moreover, the Bluetooth equipped devices can also form networks– such a network of personal devices is often referred to as a personal area network (PAN).

Why bluetooth

Why Bluetooth?

  • Cable replacement between devices.

  • Open Specification

  • Low power consumption

  • Devices can be connected to multiple devices at the same time.

  • Operate in Un-licensed band (2.4GHz ISM)

Bluetooth technical features

Bluetooth Technical Features:

  • 2.4 GHz ISM Open Band

    • Globally free available frequency

    • 79 channels (2400-2483.5 MHz ISM band)

    • Frequency Hopping & Time Division Duplex (1600 hops/second typically)

  • 10-100 Meter Range

    • Class I – 100 meter (300 feet)

    • Class II – 20 meter (60 feet)

    • Class III – 10 meter (30 feet)

  • Link Rate : 1 Mbps

  • Simultaneous Voice/Data Capable

    • SCO (Synchronous connection oriented) for voice

    • ACL (Asynchronous connectionless link) for data

  • Transmit Power: 0dbm

  • Receiver Sensitivity : -73dbm

  • Uses Binary GFSK

Bluetooth history

Bluetooth History:

  • King Harold Blatand, or Bluetooth, a Viking and King of Denmark 940-981, united Denmark & Norway

  • 1994 – Ericsson study on a wireless technology to link mobile phones and accessories

Bluetooth history cont d

Bluetooth history (cont’d):

  • Originally conceived as a cable replacement technology

  • Other usage models began to develop:

    • Personal Area Network (PAN)

    • Ad-hoc networks

    • Data/voice access points (LMN)

    • Etc.

Bluetooth history cont d1

Bluetooth History (cont’d):

  • 1994 – Ericsson study complete/vision

  • 1995 – Engineering work begins

  • 1997 – Intel agrees to collaborate

  • 1998 – Bluetooth SIG (Special Interest Group) formed: Ericsson, Intel, IBM, Nokia and Toshiba

  • 1999 – Bluetooth Specification 1.0A

    • SIG promoter group expanded: 3Com, Lucent, Microsoft & Motorola

  • 2000 – Bluetooth Specification 1.0B, 2000+ adopters

  • 2001 – First retail products released, Specification 1.1 (JSR-82 Java for Bluetooth API based on Spec v1.1)

  • 2003 – Bluetooth Specification 1.2

  • 2004 – Bluetooth Specification 2.0(?)

Bluetooth network topology

Bluetooth Network Topology:

  • PICONET - Collection of devices connected in an ad hoc fashion

  • One unit acts as master and the others as slaves for the lifetime of the piconet

    • Master – device that initiates a data exchange

    • Slave – device that responds to the master

  • Master determines hopping pattern, slaves have to synchronize

  • Each piconet has one master and up to 7 simultaneous slaves

  • Participation in a piconet = synchronization to hopping sequence

  • Cont d1


    • Scatternet (intersecting piconets)

      • Two or more piconets form a scatternet

      • Devices can be slave in both or master in one and slave in other.

    Piconet example

    Piconet example:

    Scatternet example

    Scatternet example:

    The bluetooth stack

    The Bluetooth Stack:

    Packet format

    Packet Format:

    • Access Code: timing synchronization, offset compensation, paging and inquiry.

    • Header: information for packet acknowledgement, packet numbering for out-of-order packet reordering, flow control, slave address and error check for header.

    • Payload: voice field, data field or both

    Bluetooth mac protocol

    Bluetooth MAC Protocol:

    • Facilitates communication among devices within the piconet

    • Assumes that all devices are synchronized with each other

    • Let’s see how it works!

    Simulation design

    Simulation Design:

    • One master and seven slaves

    • Only one is active at a given time (assumption)

    • Assigning address

      • If (node node address==0)

        • MASTER

  • else

    • SLAVE

  • Considers only ACL (data traffic)

  • Master polls

    • Poll-time is calculated

  • Cont d2


    • Slave sends req.msg (if it has data to send)

      • Req. time is calculated. Req. msg contains this slave address and the one to which it wants to send data. It also show packet length.

        • If slave has no data to send, slot is wasted

  • Master sends, on specifying hops (according to demand), sends ACK

    • Ack. Time is calculated

  • Cont d3


    • Slave sends its data

      • Transmit time is calculated.

    • The packet does not reach its destination if Pt <0.5mW

    • Finally overall time and useful time are calculated

    • Calculated time efficiency

    • Also graph drawn throughput versus load

    Performance metrics

    Performance metrics:

    • Throughput

    • Time efficiency (delay)

    Simulation results 1

    Simulation results(1):

    Time efficiency = 19.8

    Too low because of a lot of overhead of polling and setting up connection

    Simulation results 2

    Simulation results(2):



    • Too much delay because

    • polling (high overhead)

    • If slave has no data to send, slot is wasted

    • Highly centralized

    Bluetooth future

    Bluetooth Future:

    • Bluetooth was originally intended to be a cable replacement,

    • but, has evolved to become an infrastructure for Personal Area Network (PAN)

    • 2001: 10 million devices produced

    • 2003: 70 million!

    Modeling simulation of bluetooth mac protocol

    Thank you

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