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Age of Absolutism Part C. In the late 1500s, who became the first Bourbon king of France? Henri IV 2. Basically, what did Henri IV end? Henri IV largely ended the French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinists). 3. What is Absolutism?

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In the late 1500s, who became the first Bourbon king of France?

  • Henri IV

2. Basically, what did Henri IV end?

  • Henri IV largely ended the French Wars of Religion between Catholics and Huguenots (French Calvinists)

3. What is Absolutism?

  • Absolutism is a Royal System of government in which the king holds total power over his subjects

4. What was the Divine Right of Kings?

  • Absolute monarchs believed that they got their right to rule (sovereignty) directly from God.
  • God, in short, not only allowed them to rule, but did so with affection.

5. Who was the best example of an Absolutist monarch in Europe?

  • Louis XIV of France (reigned from 1643-1715)
  • But, for the moment, let’s turn to Louis XIII

6. During the reign of Louis XIII, who exercised great power in the French government?

  • Cardinal Richelieu

7. What did Richelieu do relative to the French State?

  • He transformed France into a stronger centralized state

8. What did Richelieu do relative to the French nobility?

  • He restrained French nobles, and enhanced royal power

9. What did Richelieu do relative to France’s rivalry with the Hapsburgs of Austria and Spain?

  • He checked (blocked) the Hapsburgs during the Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648)

10. What did Richelieu do relative France’s involvement in the Thirty Years’ War?

  • He positioned France to be the biggest winner of the Thirty Years War, though he did not live to see the end of the war

11. In many ways, what was Richelieu’s biggest accomplishment?

  • He re-made France into something of a modern nation-state

12. When did Richelieu die?

  • 1642

13. When did Louis XIII die?

  • 1643

14. In what year was Louis XIV born?

  • 1638

15. In 1643, Louis XIV became what?

  • King

16. From 1643 to 1661, how might it be said that Louis XIV reigned but did not rule?

  • As a young boy and as a young man, Louis XIV was the king, but he did not exercise the power to govern.

17. During these years, who was one of Louis XIV’s key advisors?

  • Cardinal Mazarin

18. When did King Louis XIV of France take over the reins of power?

  • 1661
  • He would rule France from 1661 until his death in 1715

19. When Louis XIV took the reins of power in 1661, how did he become the “Sun King.”

  • He brought many French nobles to Versailles, a royal palace outside of Paris, and over time they became intoxicated with luxury

20. What did the nobles do at Versailles?

  • At Versailles, the nobles were given meaningless duties while enjoying great luxury at court

21. How did this make Louis XIV more powerful?

  • He kept his friends close, and his enemies closer
  • Also, he kept his potential enemies busy when they could have been plotting against him

22. During his reign, what did Louis XIV have?

  • Unchecked power in terms of national policy making

23. What were some of Louis XIV’s greatest achievements in the New World?

  • The establishment of colonial outposts, with Mobile being one of them

24. What did Louis XIV do to France’s eastern frontier?

  • He pushed France’s eastern border to the east, thus enlarging France’s territory

25. What did Louis XIV do for France’s economy?

  • He modernized it

26. What was one of Louis XIV’s greatest economic failures?

  • He left France in great debt

27. What blunder did Louis XIV make relative to French Protestants?

  • In 1685, he revoked the Edict of Nantes in which French Huguenots had been given religious tolerance
  • As a result, many Huguenots left France
  • The loss of thousands of Huguenots hurt France’s economy

28. After the Thirty Years’ War, what two Germanic states emerged as important countries?

  • Prussia and Austria

29. In the 1500s, who was the first Czar of Russia, and who made Russia a larger power?

  • Ivan the Terrible, a violent and ruthless man

30. What Russian family ruled Russia from 1613 to 1917?

  • The Romanovs

31. In the late 1600s and early 1700s, what did Peter the Great (a Romanov) do that transformed Russia?

  • He brought western practices to Russia

32. What are some examples of how Peter the Great transformed Russia?

  • He brought in western clothing, manners, technology, ship building, etc

33. By the 1780s, where would Revolutions begin the eventual dismantling of royal authority in Western Civilization?

  • America and France