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Glycolysis and Fermentation. What ’ s so sweet about Sugar?. Objectives. Discuss ATP and where the ‘ energy ’ is Describe what fermentation is and where the ‘ energy ’ is Design an experiment to ‘ test ’ fermentation Weigh the merits of fermentation vs. respiration

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Glycolysis and fermentation
Glycolysis and Fermentation

What’s so sweet about Sugar?


Objectives
Objectives

  • Discuss ATP and where the ‘energy’ is

  • Describe what fermentation is and where the ‘energy’ is

  • Design an experiment to ‘test’ fermentation

  • Weigh the merits of fermentation vs. respiration

  • Recognize/explain what happens in a RedOx reaction


Thinking it through
Thinking it Through

  • CH4 (methane)

    C2H5OH H3C-CH2-OH (ethanol) C8H18 CH3(CH2)6CH3 (octane)

  • H2O CO2

  • Similarities in components/structure?

  • Differences in behavior?

  • Differences in structure?


So where are calories
So where are ‘calories’?

Energy (heat) needed to raise 1g water, 1oC

Why are there

more calories?

Saturated Fat


RedOx Reactions


OIL RIG

OIL = Oxidation Is Loss

of electrons

RIG = Reduction Is Gain

of electrons


O



NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide


H

H

H


Oxidized Form

Reduced Form


Oxidized Form

Reduced Form

NAD+

NADH


Atp molecule used to store and transfer energy
ATP- molecule used to store and transfer energy”


Atp molecule used to store and transfer energy1
ATP- molecule used to store and transfer energy”


Atp molecule used to store and transfer energy2
ATP- molecule used to store and transfer energy”

Phosphate Groups


Atp molecule used to store and transfer energy3
ATP- molecule used to store and transfer energy”

  • Why not just separate?

  • What does this mean in terms of ‘energy’?


How does breaking a bond release energy
How does breaking a bond ‘release’ energy?

Same thing shown with a bit more detail…

http://course1.winona.edu/sberg/ChemStructures/Atphydrl.gif






Glycolysis
Glycolysis

  • Glyco – glucose/sugar

  • Lysis – “to loosen”, take apart


Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)


Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 ADP


Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP


Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH


Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

NAD+ is reduced to “NADH”


Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

*Addition of 2 inorganic

phosphates


Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP


Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons


Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons


Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Net production of 2 ATP


How do you keep glycolysis going
How do you Keep Glycolysis Going?


How do you keep glycolysis going1

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

How do you Keep Glycolysis Going?


How do you keep glycolysis going2

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

How do you Keep Glycolysis Going?


Fermentation lactic acid

NADH is oxidized

into NAD+

Lactic Acid

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Fermentation(Lactic Acid)

2 NADH

2 NAD+

Pyruvate is reduced and forms Lactic Acid


Fermentation alcoholic

CO2

NADH is oxidized

into NAD+

Ethanol

2 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Fermentation(Alcoholic)

CO2

2 NADH

2 NAD+

Pyruvate is reduced and forms Ethanol


Fermentation
Fermentation

  • Keep Glycolysis going - oxidizes NADH into NAD+

  • Glycolysis – 2 ATP

  • “NO” O2 present

  • Lactic Acid

  • Alcoholic

    • Ethanol

- CO2


Here s the claim
Here’s the claim:

Glycolysis –

Glucose + 2ATP  Pyruvate + 4ATP

Fermentation (no O2 present)

Pyruvate + NADH ethanol + CO2 + NAD+

What can you test?

Conditions needed?

How?

Rank in terms of: feasibility, safety, ‘fun’


Optimizations
Optimizations

  • We’ve proposed testing for components

  • Are all tests best done under same conditions?

  • Concept: limiting components. How do you max your yield (or sensitivity) for:

    • Glucose

    • CO2

    • ETOH


More?

  • What will your solution look like?

    • “murky”?

  • How do you speed it up?

  • What conditions do we WANT?



Okay that s fermentation

Okay, that’s Fermentation

How does it‘usually’ happen?


So?

  • WHY do you breath O2?

  • Where does the CO2 come from?

  • Where does ‘body heat’ come from?

  • What is the relationship between sugars, and fats?


What do conclusive results tell you
What do ‘conclusive’ results tell you?

  • Smoking, etc.

    • ‘consistent’ with


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