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Glycolysis and Fermentation. What ’ s so sweet about Sugar?. Objectives. Discuss ATP and where the ‘ energy ’ is Describe what fermentation is and where the ‘ energy ’ is Design an experiment to ‘ test ’ fermentation Weigh the merits of fermentation vs. respiration

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glycolysis and fermentation
Glycolysis and Fermentation

What’s so sweet about Sugar?

objectives
Objectives
  • Discuss ATP and where the ‘energy’ is
  • Describe what fermentation is and where the ‘energy’ is
  • Design an experiment to ‘test’ fermentation
  • Weigh the merits of fermentation vs. respiration
  • Recognize/explain what happens in a RedOx reaction
thinking it through
Thinking it Through
  • CH4 (methane)

C2H5OH H3C-CH2-OH (ethanol) C8H18 CH3(CH2)6CH3 (octane)

  • H2O CO2
  • Similarities in components/structure?
  • Differences in behavior?
  • Differences in structure?
so where are calories
So where are ‘calories’?

Energy (heat) needed to raise 1g water, 1oC

Why are there

more calories?

Saturated Fat

slide7

OIL RIG

OIL = Oxidation Is Loss

of electrons

RIG = Reduction Is Gain

of electrons

slide11

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

slide12

NAD+

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide

slide16

H

H

H

slide17

Oxidized Form

Reduced Form

slide18

Oxidized Form

Reduced Form

NAD+

NADH

atp molecule used to store and transfer energy3
“ATP- molecule used to store and transfer energy”
  • Why not just separate?
  • What does this mean in terms of ‘energy’?
how does breaking a bond release energy
How does breaking a bond ‘release’ energy?

Same thing shown with a bit more detail…

http://course1.winona.edu/sberg/ChemStructures/Atphydrl.gif

glycolysis
Glycolysis
  • Glyco – glucose/sugar
  • Lysis – “to loosen”, take apart
slide31

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

slide32

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 ADP

slide33

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

slide34

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

slide35

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

NAD+ is reduced to “NADH”

slide36

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

*Addition of 2 inorganic

phosphates

slide37

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

slide38

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

slide39

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

slide40

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Glycolysis

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Net production of 2 ATP

how do you keep glycolysis going1

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

How do you Keep Glycolysis Going?
how do you keep glycolysis going2

Glucose

(6 Carbons)

2 ATP

2 NAD+

2 ADP

2 NADH

2 ADP

2 ADP

2 ATP

2 ATP

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

How do you Keep Glycolysis Going?
fermentation lactic acid

NADH is oxidized

into NAD+

Lactic Acid

3 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Fermentation(Lactic Acid)

2 NADH

2 NAD+

Pyruvate is reduced and forms Lactic Acid

fermentation alcoholic

CO2

NADH is oxidized

into NAD+

Ethanol

2 Carbons

Pyruvate

3 Carbons

Fermentation(Alcoholic)

CO2

2 NADH

2 NAD+

Pyruvate is reduced and forms Ethanol

fermentation
Fermentation
  • Keep Glycolysis going - oxidizes NADH into NAD+
  • Glycolysis – 2 ATP
  • “NO” O2 present
  • Lactic Acid
  • Alcoholic
    • Ethanol

- CO2

here s the claim
Here’s the claim:

Glycolysis –

Glucose + 2ATP  Pyruvate + 4ATP

Fermentation (no O2 present)

Pyruvate + NADH ethanol + CO2 + NAD+

What can you test?

Conditions needed?

How?

Rank in terms of: feasibility, safety, ‘fun’

optimizations
Optimizations
  • We’ve proposed testing for components
  • Are all tests best done under same conditions?
  • Concept: limiting components. How do you max your yield (or sensitivity) for:
    • Glucose
    • CO2
    • ETOH
slide49
More?
  • What will your solution look like?
    • “murky”?
  • How do you speed it up?
  • What conditions do we WANT?
okay that s fermentation

Okay, that’s Fermentation

How does it‘usually’ happen?

slide52
So?
  • WHY do you breath O2?
  • Where does the CO2 come from?
  • Where does ‘body heat’ come from?
  • What is the relationship between sugars, and fats?
what do conclusive results tell you
What do ‘conclusive’ results tell you?
  • Smoking, etc.
    • ‘consistent’ with
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